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Climate, Soil & Vegetation

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Natural Vegetation

Nov 23, 2015
Natural vegetation means the plants that have not been grown by humans. It doesn’t need help from humans and gets whatever it needs from its natural environment. There is a close relationship between height of land and the character of vegetations. With the change in height, the climate changes and that changes natural vegetation. The growth of vegetation depends on temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors like slope and thickness of soil. It is categorized into three broad categories: Forest, grassland and shrubs.

Soil profile of India

Nov 23, 2015
Soil is the most important resource. Wheat, rice and millets, pulses, oilseeds, beverages, vegetables and fruits, all are obtained from soil. Other food items such as poultry, meat and milk are animal products. Besides, food timber, fibers, rubber, herbs and medicinal plants are also obtained from the soil.

Land resources: Availability and Degradation

Nov 23, 2015
Land is a finite resource is subject to competing pressures from urbanisation, infrastructure, increased food, feed, fibres and fuel production and the provision of key ecosystem services. But it's also a shrinking resource. This is a global problem. Demands for areas to settle grow food and biomass is rising around the world, and climate change is likely to impact on land demand, availability and degradation.

Distribution of Rainfall

Nov 23, 2015
The average rainfall in India is 125 cm. The South-west monsoon constituted 75% of the total rainfall (June to September), 13% of it by north-east monsoon (October to December), 10% of it by pre monsoon cyclonic rainfall (mainly in April and May and 2% of it by western disturbances (December to February).  The western coast and North-Eastern India receive over about 400 cm of rainfall annually. However, it is less than 60 cm in western Rajasthan and adjoining parts of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab.

Koeppen's classification of Climate

Nov 23, 2015
The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used system for classifying the world's climates. Its categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. The Köppen system recognizes five major climatic types; each type is designated by a capital letter.

The El Nino Theory

Nov 20, 2015
El Nino is a name given to the periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru as a temporary replacement of the cold Peruvian current. Sea surface temperatures play a major role in global weather which influences two extreme phases of a naturally occurring climate cycle. I.e. El Niño/Southern Oscillation and La Nina. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific

The Onset of the Monsoon and Withdrawal

Nov 20, 2015
The onset of the Indian Monsoon and Withdrawal is defined in terms of zonal asymmetric temperature anomaly and withdrawal is defined in terms of vertical wind shear.  The Monsoon, unlike the trade winds, are not steady winds but are pulsating in nature, affected by different atmospheric conditions encountered by it, on its way over the warm tropical seas. The monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian peninsula generally by the first week of June. Subsequently, it divides into two – the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch.

The Indian Monsoon

Nov 20, 2015
The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds. The sailors who came to India in historic times were one of the first to have noticed the phenomenon of the monsoon. They benefited from the reversal of the wind system as they came by sailing ships at the mercy of winds. The Arabs, who had also come to India as traders named this seasonal reversal of the wind system ‘Monsoon’. The monsoons are experienced in the tropical area roughly between 20° N and 20° S.

Factors affecting India’s Climate

Nov 20, 2015
The climate around the world is affected by many different factors that lead to different parts of the Earth experiencing differing climates. Latitude, attitude, pressure and winds are factors that influence the India’s climate. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country from the Rann of Kuchchh in the west to Mizoram in the east. India lies in the region of north easterly winds. These winds originate from the subtropical high-pressure belt of the northern hemisphere.

Seasons in India

Nov 20, 2015
India has a monsoon type of climate. The term “monsoon” is derived from Arabic word ‘mausim’ which means seasonal reversal in the wind direction. The season of India influenced by the two types of winds – one blow from the Arabic Sea and second is from the Bay of Bengal. The Indian meteorological department has divided the climate of India into four seasons- the Winter Season, the Summer Season, the Rainy Season and the Autumn Season.


Dec 10, 2010
The climate of India may be broadly described as tropical monsoon type. Its climate is affected by two seasonal winds — the north-east monsoon and the south-west monsoon. The north-east monsoon commonly known as winter monsoon blows from land to sea whereas south-west monsoon known as summer monsoon blows from sea to land after crossing the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The south-west monsoon brings most of the rainfall during the year in the country. It is now possible to make forecast about the monsoon rains successfully with developed models and trained manpower.


Dec 10, 2010
Biodiversity is the varied and differences among living organisms of terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes associated with them. India has great diversity in its geo-climatic conditions. Thus, there is great diversity in India's forest, wetlands, mangroves wildlife and marine areas. The richness in fauna and flora makes it as one of the 12 mega-biodiversity countries of the world.

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