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Climate, Soil & Vegetation

General Knowledge for Competitive Exams

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The Jet Stream Theory

Feb 6, 2019
Monsoon is driven by the atmospheric circulation phenomenon which produced by unequal and differential heating of continental and oceanic areas. Jet Stream play an important role in the possible formation, streering or intensifying weather phenomena such as monsoons, cyclones, anti-cyclones and other weather conditions. In this article, we are giving the concept given in the Jet Stream theory and affects of jet stream on the Indian Monsoon which is very useful for the competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

The Thermal Theory of Monsoon

Oct 3, 2018
The thermal theory was propounded by the British scholars. Dudley Stamp and Baker have played an important role in it. According to this theory, temperature is the main reason of the origin of monsoons. In summer, the sun rays fall perpendicularly in the Northern Hemisphere. The Southern trade winds which generally blow between 300 and 50 South latitudes, cross the Equator because of the Northern move of the thermal equatorial line.

The Equatorial Westerly Theory

Oct 1, 2018
The Equatorial Westerly Theory has been propounded by Flohn. He thinks of the thermal low of northern India and the accompanying monsoon as simply an unusually great northward displacement of the Northern Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (NITCZ). The seasonal shift of the ITCZ has given the concept of Northern Inter- Tropical Convergence Zone (NITCZ) in summer (July) and Southern Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (SITCZ) in winter (Jan.). The fact that the NITCZ is drawn to about 30° latitude may be associated with the unusually high temperature over north India

Classification and Properties of the major soil in India

Apr 13, 2018
The soil is formed when rocks are broken down by the action of wind, water and climate. The characteristic features of a soil depend upon the rocks from which it has been formed and the kind of plants that grow in it. In this article, we are giving the classification of the soil, composition of the soil, formation of the soil, distribution of the soil in India and what types of crops grown in the particular soils which is very useful for the UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

Do you know the difference between Peninsular River regime and the Himalayan River regime

Feb 13, 2018
The climatic condition of any place or region controlled the flow of the river system. The River Regime is the pattern of the seasonal flow of water in any river. Here, we are giving brief note which will be helpful for understanding the differences between Peninsular River regime and the Himalayan River regime.

How does the Tibet Plateau influence the monsoon system of the Indian Subcontinent?

Feb 8, 2018
The monsoon system of the Indian subcontinent has appeared as truly massive interruptions and reversal of the normal global atmospheric circulation, which make it different from the rest of the world. Here, we are giving a brief note on ‘How does the Tibet Plateau influence the monsoon system of the Indian Subcontinent’, which is very useful for competitive examinations like UPSC, SSC and State Services.

What are the factors responsible for the formation of Soil?

Jan 30, 2018
The soil is one of the important components of the sustainability of an ecosystem because it is the vitally important natural medium for the growth of vegetation. Here, we are giving brief note on the major factors which are responsible for the formation of the Soil which is very useful for competitive examinations like UPSC, SSC and State Services.

Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks

Dec 14, 2017
Indian subcontinent is not only well known for its Cultural diversity, but also have a diverse range of flora and fauna. Human activities are permitted in a wildlife sanctuary whereas these are completely restricted in a national park. Hunting is prohibited without permission in a sanctuary; however, grazing and movement of cattle is permitted. Therefore, India houses a number of wildlife sanctuaries and national parks that help in preserving the wildlife in its natural form. Hunting and grazing are totally prohibited in a national park.

What are the differences between El Nino and La Nina?

Dec 4, 2017
The El Nino and La Nina are part of the global climate system which occurs when the Pacific Ocean and the atmosphere above it change from their neutral ('normal') state for several seasons. Here, we are giving the differences between El Nino and La Nina on the basis of meaning, Temperature at Sea Surface, Pressure, Trade winds, Seasons, Coriolis force, Ocean waters in the Pacific and cyclone for general awareness.

How does El Nino and La Nina impact on Indian Weather?

Nov 29, 2017
The Sea surface temperatures play a major role in global weather which influences two extreme phases of a naturally occurring climate cycle. I.e., El Nino/Southern Oscillation and La Nina. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific and the most powerful phenomenon of the Earth. Here, we are giving the write-up on the ‘How does El Nino and La Nina impact on Indian Weather?’ for general awareness.

Coastal Erosion in India

Nov 23, 2017
The Coastal Erosion is the process of wearing away of the land by the sea due to corrosion, abrasion, hydraulic action, attrition and corrosion/solution. India's has long peninsular region and due to developmental activities are often carried out without properly understanding the coastal dynamics, leading to long-term damage, particularly to local communities. Find out the concept of Coastal erosion, findings of Ministry of Earth Sciences, and reasons for coastal erosion and measure to deal with coastal erosion for the preparation competitive examination.

How the pre-monsoon rain became the boon of India's markets and Farmers!

May 23, 2017
India is a land of diverse range of climatic condition ranging from tropical in south, temperate and alpine in the Himalayan region, whereas some part of north-western part remains dry (Thar Desert) and some parts like Sunderban Delta, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat are characterised by mangrove vegetation. Hence, it very difficult to generalised the India’s diverse geographic level, and its wide range of weather. Let's find out, how pre-monsoon brings blessings and happiness to the India's markets and Farmers.

Summary on Climate of India

Jan 4, 2017
The climate of India may be broadly described as tropical monsoon type. The term “monsoon” is derived from Arabic word ‘mausim’ which means seasonal reversal in the wind direction. The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) designates four official seasons. Here, we are giving the ‘Summary on Climate of India’ which is very useful for the preparation of competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.

Report of Red Data Book

Nov 23, 2015
The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red Lists are the bearers of genetic diversity and the building blocks of ecosystems, and information on their conservation status and distribution provides the foundation for making decisions about conserving biodiversity from local to global levels. The IUCN Global Species Programme working with the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) has been assessing the conservation status of species, subspecies, varieties, and even selected subpopulations on a global scale for the past 50 years in order to highlight taxa threatened with extinction, and thereby promote their conservation.

Important facts about Wildlife

Nov 23, 2015
Under the agreement of Human Environment Conference 1972 (Stockholm) the Project Tiger was launched in India in 1973 with the help of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).  According to the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and the Ministry of Environment and Forests, India, there were only 9 tigers reserved in India during 1973-74 whereas there have  been established 41 of them untill January 2013.

Biosphere Reserves in India

Nov 23, 2015
Biosphere Reserves are representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over large area of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystems or a combination thereof and representative examples of bio-geographic zones/provinces.

Environmental movements and acts of the Government

Nov 23, 2015
India is a land of Gandian philosophy who advocates the economic growth but on the basis of the sustainable growth. The movements related to environment often to as the ecology movement which moving around conservation and green politics to addressing the environmental issues. The axis point of these types of movement are ecology, health and human rights for the grass-roots awareness. In recent years so may grass root environmental movements launched against the developmental activities that have threatened the ecological balance.

Social Forestry Programme

Nov 23, 2015
Social forestry refers to the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development. The term was first used in India in 1976 by The National Commission on Agriculture, Government of India. The basic objective social forestry is to raising plantations by the common man so as to meet the growing demand for timber, fuel wood, fodder, etc, thereby reducing the pressure on the traditional forest area.

The Forest Research Institute in India

Nov 23, 2015
The Forest Research Institute is an institute of the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education and is a premier institution in the field of forestry research in India. It is located at Dehradun in Uttarakhand, and is one of the oldest institutions of its kind. In 1991, it was declared a deemed university by the University Grants Commission. Established as Imperial Forest Research Institute in 1906, Forest Research Institute (FRI) Dehradun is a premier institution under the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE).

Forest Resources

Nov 23, 2015
Forests are among the most diverse and widespread ecosystems on earth, and have many functions: they provide timber and other forest products; have cultural values; deliver recreation benefits and ecosystem services, including regulation of soil, air and water; are reservoirs for biodiversity; and act as carbon sinks. The forest area differs from state to state in India. Madhya Pradesh stands at the top in the total forest area, followed by the Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Odisha. One-fourth of the total forest covered area of the country is in the north-eastern states.

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