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General Knowledge for Competitive Exams

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Benefits from Biodiversity

Aug 21, 2015
Agriculture, forestry and fisheries products, stable natural hydrological cycles, fertile soils, a balanced climate and numerous other vital ecosystem services depend upon the conservation of biological diversity. Food production relies on biodiversity for a variety of food plants, pollination, pest control, nutrient provision, genetic diversity, and disease prevention and control. Both medicinal plants and manufactured pharmaceuticals rely on biodiversity.

Renewable Resources

Aug 21, 2015
A renewable resource is an organic natural resource which can replenish to overcome usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes. Renewable resources are a part of Earth's natural environment and the largest components of its ecosphere. Example: forests resources, water resources, mineral resources, Air resources etc.

Natural Spheres

Aug 21, 2015
Our environment provides us with a variety of goods and services necessary for our day to day lives. These natural resources include, air, water, soil, minerals, along with the climate and solar energy, which form the non-living or ‘Abiotic’ part of nature. The ‘Biotic’ or living parts of nature consist of plants and animals, including microbes. From the standpoint of Physical Geography, the Earth can be seen to be composed of four principal components: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Lithosphere, and Hydrosphere.

Water Cycles

Aug 14, 2015
The water cycle describes the existence and movement of water on, in, and above the Earth. Earth's water is always in movement and is always changing states, from liquid to vapor to ice and back again. The water cycle has been working for billions of years and all life on Earth depends on it continuing to work; the Earth would be a pretty stale place without it.

Renewable Resources of Energy

Aug 14, 2015
Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources—such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat—which are renewable (naturally replenished). Renewable energy technologies range from solar power, wind power, hydroelectricity/micro hydro, biomass and biofuels for transportation.

Non-Renewable Resources of Energy

Aug 14, 2015
Energy exists freely in nature. Some of them exist infinitely (never run out, called RENEWABLE), the rest have finite amounts (they took millions of years to form, and will run out one day, called Non-Renewable). Non-Renewable Energy is energy from fossil fuels (coal, crude oil, natural gas) and uranium. Fossil fuels are mainly made up of Carbon.

Meaning of Environment

Aug 14, 2015
The term environment has been derived from a French word “Environia” means to surround. It refers to both Abiotic (physical or non-living) and Biotic (living) environment. The word environment means surroundings, in which organisms live. Environment and the organisms are two organised and complex component of nature. Environment controls the life of the organisms including human beings. Human beings interact with the environment more vigorously than other living beings. Ordinarily environment refers to the materials and forces that surround the living organism.

Gaseous Cycle of the Atmosphere

Aug 14, 2015
Due to the existence of the gases in the atmosphere, the life on the planet Earth could be possible. Carbon dioxide gives life to the plants/trees and plants and trees gives life to human beings. In this way both are interdependent on each other. In the presence of sunlight, plants take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through their leaves. The plants combine carbon dioxide with water, which is absorbed by their roots from the soil.

Energy Cycle of the Atmosphere

Aug 14, 2015
Ecosystems maintain themselves by cycling energy and nutrients obtained from external sources. At the first trophic level, primary producers (plants, algae, and some bacteria) use solar energy to produce organic plant material through photosynthesis. Herbivores—animals that feed solely on plants—make up the second trophic level. Predators that eat herbivores comprise the third trophic level.

Components of Ecosystem

Aug 14, 2015
An Ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (Weather, Earth, Sun, Soil, Climate, Atmosphere).

Non-Renewable Resources

Aug 14, 2015
Non-renewable Resources: These are minerals that have been formed in the lithosphere over millions of years and constitute a closed system. These non-renewable resources, once used, remain on earth in a different form and, unless recycled, become waste material. Non-renewable resources include fossil fuels such as oil and coal, which if extracted at the present rate, will soon be totally used up.

NGO and Advocacy Institution in the Field of Environment

Aug 14, 2015
There have been several Government and Nongovernment organizations that have led to environmental protection in our country. They have led to a growing interest in environmental protection and conservation of nature and natural resources. Bombay Natural History Society, Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, Botanical Survey of India, Wild life Institute of India, Dehradun etc. are some prominent Institutes which are working intensely in the field of protection of Environment & wildlife.

Meaning of Ecosystem

Aug 14, 2015
An Ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (Weather, Earth, Sun, Soil, Climate, Atmosphere).

Meaning of Ecology

Aug 14, 2015
Ecology can be defined as the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings. It can also be defined as the scientific study of the interaction among organism and their environment. The word Ecology literally means “study of the house”. Ecology is a multi-dimensional science as it has relationship with the other branches of science such as Geography, Geology, Meteorology, Pedology, Physics and Chemistry. Ecology is that part of environmental studies in which we study about organisms, plants and animals and their relationship or interdependence on other living and non living environment.

Famous Environmentalists of the India & World

Aug 14, 2015
An environmentalist broadly supports the goals of the environmental movement, "a political and ethical movement that seeks to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment through changes to environmentally harmful human activities". An environmentalist is engaged in or believes in the philosophy of environmentalism. Some Examples are as follows: Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad (environmental activist and economist of Bangladesh), Wangari Maathai (kenya), Hunter Lovins etc.


Dec 13, 2010
The National Wildlife Action Plan provides the framework of strategy as well as progamme for conservation of wildlife. The first National Wild Life Action Plan (NWAP) of 1983 has been revised and the new wildlife action plan has been adopted.

Project Tiger

Dec 13, 2010
Project tiger was launched in 1973 with a mandate to conserve tigers in a holistic manner. These are fulfilled by facilitating focused, concerted management of ecotypical reserves in various states, constituted on a core buffer strategy through funding the technical support including site-specific inputs to elicit local community support for conservation.


Dec 13, 2010
Forests are a renewable source and contribute substantially to economic development. They play a major role in enhancing the quality of environment.

Environmental Legislation

Dec 13, 2010
The Ministry has undertaken the formulation of a Comprehensive National Environment policy to harmonise the demands of development and environment in response to the need to weave environmental consideration into the fabric of development process and national life. The Ministry in consultation with experts, has prepared a draft National Environment Policy, 2005 to harmonize the demands of development and environment.

Environment Impact Assessment

Dec 13, 2010
For sustainable development and optimal use of natural resources, environmental considerations are required to be integrated in planning, designing and implementation of development projects.

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