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Meaning of Biodiversity

Aug 21, 2015
‘Biological diversity’ or biodiversity is that part of nature which includes the differences in genes among the individuals of a species, the variety and richness of all the plants and animal species at different scales in space, locally, in a region, in the country and the world, and various types of ecosystems, both terrestrial and aquatic, within a defined area.

How Ecosystem works

Aug 21, 2015
The ecosystem functions through several biogeochemical cycles and energy transfer mechanisms. Observe and document the components of the ecosystem which consists of its Non-Living or Abiotic features such as air, water, climate and soil. Its biotic components are the various plants and animals. Both these aspects of the ecosystem interact with each other through several functional aspects to form Nature’s ecosystems.

Common Plant Species of India

Aug 21, 2015
Nature has endowed India with a rich biological diversity, which includes over 40,000 species of plants and 75000 species of animals. India has about 12% of the global plant wealth amongst which there are nearly 3,000 tree species. There are around 15,000 flowering plant species in India. There are over 3000 medicinal plants in India. This list represents a 1000-odd plants which have been classified as traded medicinal plants according to the ENVIS database.

Bio Geographic Classification of India

Aug 21, 2015
India is a Mega- diverse nation, housing around 10% of world's species. India also has a rich cultural heritage going back millions of years. Much of Indian biodiversity is intricately related to the socio-cultural practices of the land. Eastern and North Eastern parts of India are the mega sources of biodiversity. India receives so many items like medicines, woods, flora and fauna.

Benefits from Biodiversity

Aug 21, 2015
Agriculture, forestry and fisheries products, stable natural hydrological cycles, fertile soils, a balanced climate and numerous other vital ecosystem services depend upon the conservation of biological diversity. Food production relies on biodiversity for a variety of food plants, pollination, pest control, nutrient provision, genetic diversity, and disease prevention and control. Both medicinal plants and manufactured pharmaceuticals rely on biodiversity.

Renewable Resources

Aug 21, 2015
A renewable resource is an organic natural resource which can replenish to overcome usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes. Renewable resources are a part of Earth's natural environment and the largest components of its ecosphere. Example: forests resources, water resources, mineral resources, Air resources etc.

Natural Spheres

Aug 21, 2015
Our environment provides us with a variety of goods and services necessary for our day to day lives. These natural resources include, air, water, soil, minerals, along with the climate and solar energy, which form the non-living or ‘Abiotic’ part of nature. The ‘Biotic’ or living parts of nature consist of plants and animals, including microbes. From the standpoint of Physical Geography, the Earth can be seen to be composed of four principal components: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Lithosphere, and Hydrosphere.

Water Cycles

Aug 14, 2015
The water cycle describes the existence and movement of water on, in, and above the Earth. Earth's water is always in movement and is always changing states, from liquid to vapor to ice and back again. The water cycle has been working for billions of years and all life on Earth depends on it continuing to work; the Earth would be a pretty stale place without it.

Renewable Resources of Energy

Aug 14, 2015
Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources—such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat—which are renewable (naturally replenished). Renewable energy technologies range from solar power, wind power, hydroelectricity/micro hydro, biomass and biofuels for transportation.

Non-Renewable Resources of Energy

Aug 14, 2015
Energy exists freely in nature. Some of them exist infinitely (never run out, called RENEWABLE), the rest have finite amounts (they took millions of years to form, and will run out one day, called Non-Renewable). Non-Renewable Energy is energy from fossil fuels (coal, crude oil, natural gas) and uranium. Fossil fuels are mainly made up of Carbon.

Meaning of Environment

Aug 14, 2015
The term environment has been derived from a French word “Environia” means to surround. It refers to both Abiotic (physical or non-living) and Biotic (living) environment. The word environment means surroundings, in which organisms live. Environment and the organisms are two organised and complex component of nature. Environment controls the life of the organisms including human beings. Human beings interact with the environment more vigorously than other living beings. Ordinarily environment refers to the materials and forces that surround the living organism.

Gaseous Cycle of the Atmosphere

Aug 14, 2015
Due to the existence of the gases in the atmosphere, the life on the planet Earth could be possible. Carbon dioxide gives life to the plants/trees and plants and trees gives life to human beings. In this way both are interdependent on each other. In the presence of sunlight, plants take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through their leaves. The plants combine carbon dioxide with water, which is absorbed by their roots from the soil.

Energy Cycle of the Atmosphere

Aug 14, 2015
Ecosystems maintain themselves by cycling energy and nutrients obtained from external sources. At the first trophic level, primary producers (plants, algae, and some bacteria) use solar energy to produce organic plant material through photosynthesis. Herbivores—animals that feed solely on plants—make up the second trophic level. Predators that eat herbivores comprise the third trophic level.

Components of Ecosystem

Aug 14, 2015
An Ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (Weather, Earth, Sun, Soil, Climate, Atmosphere).

Non-Renewable Resources

Aug 14, 2015
Non-renewable Resources: These are minerals that have been formed in the lithosphere over millions of years and constitute a closed system. These non-renewable resources, once used, remain on earth in a different form and, unless recycled, become waste material. Non-renewable resources include fossil fuels such as oil and coal, which if extracted at the present rate, will soon be totally used up.

NGO and Advocacy Institution in the Field of Environment

Aug 14, 2015
There have been several Government and Nongovernment organizations that have led to environmental protection in our country. They have led to a growing interest in environmental protection and conservation of nature and natural resources. Bombay Natural History Society, Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, Botanical Survey of India, Wild life Institute of India, Dehradun etc. are some prominent Institutes which are working intensely in the field of protection of Environment & wildlife.

Meaning of Ecosystem

Aug 14, 2015
An Ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (Weather, Earth, Sun, Soil, Climate, Atmosphere).

Meaning of Ecology

Aug 14, 2015
Ecology can be defined as the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings. It can also be defined as the scientific study of the interaction among organism and their environment. The word Ecology literally means “study of the house”. Ecology is a multi-dimensional science as it has relationship with the other branches of science such as Geography, Geology, Meteorology, Pedology, Physics and Chemistry. Ecology is that part of environmental studies in which we study about organisms, plants and animals and their relationship or interdependence on other living and non living environment.

Famous Environmentalists of the India & World

Aug 14, 2015
An environmentalist broadly supports the goals of the environmental movement, "a political and ethical movement that seeks to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment through changes to environmentally harmful human activities". An environmentalist is engaged in or believes in the philosophy of environmentalism. Some Examples are as follows: Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad (environmental activist and economist of Bangladesh), Wangari Maathai (kenya), Hunter Lovins etc.


Dec 13, 2010
The National Wildlife Action Plan provides the framework of strategy as well as progamme for conservation of wildlife. The first National Wild Life Action Plan (NWAP) of 1983 has been revised and the new wildlife action plan has been adopted.

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