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General Knowledge for Competitive Exams

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Invasion of Timur on India: Causes and Consequences

Sep 14, 2015
Timur, better known as, Taimur was given the title of ‘Taimur Lang’, because his one leg got wound in the battlefield and compelled the Taimur to walk with a limp. Taimur was an invader from Central Asia who dreamt of becoming the famous conquerors of the world.

Cultural Development during Mughal Era

Sep 14, 2015
Mughal ruler such as Babur, Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir were known to spread cultural development in our country. The maximum works in this field was done during Mughal rule. Mughal rulers were fond of culture; therefore all were in the support of spreading education. The Mughal traditions highly influenced the palaces and forts of many regional and local kingdoms.

Economic Conditions during Delhi Sultanate

Sep 8, 2015
Under the Delhi Sultanate the Economic condition of India flourished. In fact enormous wealth tempted Mahmud of Ghazni to invade India 17 times. Malik Kafur, during the reign of Ala- ud- din Khilji, in 1311. The market arrangement of alauddin was superb.

Architecture and Literature during Vijayanagara Empire

Sep 4, 2015
The patronage of the Vijayanagara dynasty to literature and architecture was great with contribution from the royalty too. Prominence of regional languages in explaining topics like religion, poetry, general life, professions, science, skills and devotion is seen with translations around different time frames. The Architecture of the era had a cultural amalgamation from several decades and depicted an Islamic touch. Temples, courts and general civic architecture depicts beautiful intricate moldings and engravings with the use of granite and bright colors.

Muhammad Bin Tughlaq: Key Facts and Refroms

Sep 3, 2015
The Tughlaq administration, also called as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim line of Turky which managed over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India. Its rule began in 1320 in Delhi. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq was the first ruler of this dynasty. Khusrau Khan, the last ruler of the Khilji administration was executed by Ghazni Malik.

Administration in Delhi Sultanate

Sep 3, 2015
Administration during the Delhi Sultanate was based on the laws of the Shariat or the laws of Islam. Political, legal and military authority was vested in the Sultan. Thus military strength was the main factor in succession of throne. Administrative units were, Iqta, Shiq, Paraganaa and Gram.

Economic Policy and Administration under Khilji Dynasty

Aug 25, 2015
Alauddin's administrative policy was very concise and clear. He introduced the ‘Dagh system’ (branding of horse) and ‘Chehra’ for soldiers. He appointed ‘Mustakhraj’ for the purpose of collection of revenue. The check on markets kept by two officers ‘Diwan-i- Riyasat and Shahna –i-Mandi’.

Post Gupta Dynasties in Indian Peninsula

Jul 22, 2015
During the end of 5th century A.D. the Gupta Empire began to disintegrate. Along with this breakdown Imperial Guptas, Magadha and its capital Patliputra also lost their importance. Therefore, Post Gupta Period was very turbulent in nature. Five major powers immersed in north India after the fall of the Guptas. These powers were: The Hunas, The Maukharis, The Maitrakas, The Pushyabhutis, The Gaudas.

Material and Social Life of Aryans in India

Jul 22, 2015
Original Home of the Aryans It is generally believed that they were not the original inhabitants of India. Some historians say that the original home of Aryans was Central Asia. Others are of the opinion that their original home was in southern Russia (near the Caspian sea) or in the south-east Europe (in Austria and Hungary). The Aryans who had migrated to India are known as the 'Indo-Aryans'.

Later Vedic Age (1000-600 B.C.)

Jul 22, 2015
During the Later Vedic Age the Aryans thoroughly subdued the fertile plains watered by Yamuna, Ganges and Sadanira. They crossed the Vindhyas and settled in the Deccan, to the north of Godavari. During the Later Vedic Age popular assemblies lost much of their importance and royal power increased at their cost. In other words, chiefdom gave way to kingdom. Formation of large kingdoms made the king more powerful.

Economic and Social life of Aryans

Jul 21, 2015
After the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, another glorious civilization flourished in India. The people who were responsible for the evolution of this civilization called themselves Aryas or Aryarns. Arya’ literally means the man of ‘noble character’, and the “free-born”. They belonged to the group of people known as Indo-Europeans. They entered into India from the north-west.

Economic and Social Life in “Later Vedic Period”

Jul 21, 2015
The period that followed Rig Vedic Age is known as Later Vedic Age. This age witnessed the composition of three later Veda Samhitas namely, the Samveda Samhita, the Yajurveda Samhita, the Atharvaveda Samhita as well as Brahmanas and the Upanishads of all the four Vedas and later on the two great epics—the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.

Advent of Aryans

Jul 21, 2015
People speaking Indo Aryan language came through North-western Mountains and got settled in the North West in Punjab and later in Gangatic plains. These were called as Aryans or Indo Aryans. They spoke Indo Iranian, Indo European or Sanskrit. Origin of Aryans is not clearly known, different scholars have different views on this point. It is said that Aryans lived in East of Alps (Eurasia), Central Asia, Arctic region, Germany, and Southern Russia.

Advent of Aryans in India

Jul 21, 2015
People speaking Indo Aryan language came through North-western Mountains and got settled in the North West in Punjab and later in Gangatic plains called as Aryans or Indo Aryans. They spoke Indo Iranian, Indo European or Sanskrit. It is said that Aryans lived in East of Alps (Eurasia), Central Asia, Arctic region, Germany, and Southern Russia. Aryans settled in India in Early Vedic Period. This is referred as Saptasindhu or the land of seven rivers; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, Indus and Saraswati.

Tripartite Struggle for Kannauj

Jul 21, 2015
During the 8th century AD, a struggle for control over the Kannauj took place among three major empires of India namely the Palas, the Pratiharas and the Rastrakutas. The Palas ruled the eastern parts of India while the Pratiharas controlled the western India (Avanti-Jalaor region). The Rastrakutas ruled over the Deccan region of India. The struggle for control over Kannuj among these three dynasties is known as the tripartite struggle in Indian history.

Mauryan Empire: Its Decline and Significance

Jul 21, 2015
Mauryan Empire began to decline after the death of Ashoka in 232 BC. The last king was Brihadratha was assassinated in 185 BC-183 BC by his general Pushyamitra Shunga who was a Brahmin. The decline of the Maurya Dynasty was rather rapid after the death of Ashoka/Asoka. One obvious reason for it was the succession of weak kings.

Impact of Central Asian Contacts (During Shaka-Kushan age)

Jul 21, 2015
Shaka and Kushan period saw the use of better cavalry. The use of reins and saddles were introduced by Shakas and Kushans. Besides, Shakas and Kushans introduced tunic, turban and trousers and heavy long coat. Cap, helmet and boots were also introduced during this phase which facilitated the victories in war. Central area was opened to trade with routes through sea and valleys. One of these routes becomes famous as the old silk route.

Chola Empire (from the 9th century AD to the 12th century AD): Later Cholas

Jul 21, 2015
Later Cholas were assigned the period from 1070 AD to 1279 AD. At this time, the Chola Empire achieved its pinnacle & became the "Most Powerful Country" of the world. Cholas occupied South East Asian Countries and had the most powerful army and navy of the world at that time.

Administrative Setup & Social Life in the Age of Buddha (563-483 BC)

Jul 20, 2015
Buddhism made a special appeal to the people of the non- Vedic areas where it found a virgin soil for conversion. Buddhism attacked the Varna system so it gets the support of so called lower castes. People were taken into the Buddhist order without any consideration of caste. Women were also admitted to the Sangha and thus brought on par with the men. In comparison, with Brahmanism Buddhism was liberal and democratic.

Magadhan Empire

Jul 20, 2015
Magadha Empire ruled from 684 B.C - 320 B.C in India. The Magadha Empire is mentioned in the two great epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. There were three dynasties who ruled Magadhan empire from 544 BC to 322 BC. The first one was Haryanaka dynasty (544 BC to 412 BC), second one was Shisunaga Dynasty (412 BC to 344 BC) and the third one was Nanda dynasty (344 BC-322 BC).

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