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Fundamental Rights

Dec 11, 2010
The Constitution offers all citizens, individually and collectively, some basic freedoms. These are guaranteed in the Constitution in the form of six broad categories of Fundamental Rights which are justiceable.

Fundamental Duties

Dec 11, 2010
By the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution, adopted in 1976, Fundamental Duties of the citizens have also been enumerated. Article 51 ‘A’ contained in Part IV A of the Constitution deals with Fundamental Duties.

Election Commission

Dec 11, 2010
Superintendence, direction and control of preparation of electoral rolls for, and the conduct of elections, to Parliament and state legislatures and elections to the offices of President and Vice-President of India are vested in the Election Commission of India. It is an independent constitutional authority set up in pursuance of Article 324(1) of the Constitution of India.

Constitution

Dec 11, 2010
The Constitution which envisages parliamentary form of government is federal in structure with unitary features. President of India is constitutional head of executive of the Union.

Comptroller And Auditor General

Dec 11, 2010
The comptroller and Auditor General is appointed by the president to keep watch on the accounts of the union and the states. He is responsible to see that the expenses voted by the parliament are the legislature of a state and laid down in appropriation acts are not exceeded or varied.

Citizenship

Dec 11, 2010
The Constitution of India provides for a single and uniform citizenship for whole of India. Every person who was at the commencement of the Constitution (26 January 1950) domiciled in the territory of India and:

state emblem

Dec 11, 2010
The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus.

principal religions

Dec 11, 2010
principal religions

National Song

Dec 11, 2010
The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana.

National Flower

Dec 11, 2010
Lotus, (Nelumbo Lucifera) is the national flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology in ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.

National Flag

Dec 10, 2010
The National flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. The late Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru called it "a flag not only of freedom for ourselves, but a symbol of freedom to all people." It was adopted by the national assembly of India on July 22, 1947.

National Calendar

Dec 10, 2010
The national calendar is based on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes:

NATIONAL BIRD

Dec 10, 2010
The Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), the national bird of India, is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green train of around 200 elongated feathers.

National Anthem

Dec 10, 2010
The song Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the national anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress.

National Animal

Dec 10, 2010
The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris (Linnaeus), is a striped animal. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes.

Physiography

Dec 10, 2010
The mainland comprises four regions, namely, the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region and the southern Peninsula. The Himalayas comprise three almost parallel ranges interspersed with large plateaus and valleys, some of which, like the Kashmir and Kullu valleys, are fertile, extensive and of great scenic beauty.

Demography

Dec 10, 2010
The population of India as recorded at each decenial census from 1901 has grown steadily except for a decrease during 1911-21. The population of India, at the turn of the Twentieth century was around 238.4 million.

Climate

Dec 10, 2010
The climate of India may be broadly described as tropical monsoon type. Its climate is affected by two seasonal winds — the north-east monsoon and the south-west monsoon. The north-east monsoon commonly known as winter monsoon blows from land to sea whereas south-west monsoon known as summer monsoon blows from sea to land after crossing the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The south-west monsoon brings most of the rainfall during the year in the country. It is now possible to make forecast about the monsoon rains successfully with developed models and trained manpower.

Biodiversity

Dec 10, 2010
Biodiversity is the varied and differences among living organisms of terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes associated with them. India has great diversity in its geo-climatic conditions. Thus, there is great diversity in India's forest, wetlands, mangroves wildlife and marine areas. The richness in fauna and flora makes it as one of the 12 mega-biodiversity countries of the world.

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