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General Knowledge for Competitive Exams

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The Bahmani Kingdom

Oct 21, 2015
The Bahmani Kingdom was founded by Alauddin Bahman Shah in the 1347 AD. With its capital at Gulbarga and later Bidar a total of eighteen Sultans ruled over this kingdom. Often at war with the neighboring Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagara, the Bahamanis disintegrated into independent sultanates called Deccan sultanates after the attack of Krishnadeva Raya and the death of the great Wazir of Bahmani Sultanate Mahmud Gawan.

Arab conquest of Sindh

Oct 19, 2015
From the ancient times, India was famous as the fanatical land and was called golden sparrow. Its wealth and huge population always attracted foreigners. Although the Arabs did not rule for a very long time yet they are called the bridge connectors for India and rest of the world, mainly Europe. Arab’s were conquering the world, starting from Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Persia while India was struggling with the unstable kingdom of Hindu’s. Harshvardan was the last Hindu emperor and his death brought political instability in India.

Ride of Lohara Dynasty

Oct 19, 2015
The Lohara Dynasty (1003-1171 AD) came after Utpala Dynasty in the region of Kashmir. After the suicide of Utpala, Paravgupta (950-958 AD), the scheming clerk, he was designated the title of king for a year. He was succeeded by his son Kshemagupta, a lecherous person who married princess Didda of Lohara.

Utpala Dynasty

Oct 19, 2015
When the Karkota Dynasty was on the verge of collapsing as it was both politically and economically weak, it gave the way to Utpala Dynasty to rise up. In the time of later Karkotas, the kingdom had suffered greatly from political and economical troubles. All the efforts were exhausted in making kingdom strong and united. Later on the situation was controlled. Brahmans were granted special benefits and new temples were constructed.  Soon the dynasty came to an end in 939AD after the death of Gopalavarman.

Karkota Dynasty

Oct 19, 2015
The history of Kashmir begins with the Karkota Dynasty. Before that the valley of Kashmir was ruled by Ashoka the Great, the Mauryan Empire. The strongest ruler of the dynasty was Lalitaditya. Some of the main conquests he made were up to Bengal that made Kashmir the most powerful kingdom after the time of The Guptas. The Martand temple in the Anantnag district of today’s Kashmir preserves the memory of King Lalitaditya.

Chandellas of Bundelkhand

Oct 19, 2015
Modern Bundelkhand was known as Jejakabhukti during 10th and 11th century and was ruled by Chandellas. These Rajput emperors were fond of art and culture and the temples of Khajrao (Madhya Pradesh) were built during this time. Chandellas had maternal relations with Kalachuris. Kalinjar, Mahotsavanagar and Khajrao were the important cities of this dynasty. The fields of art and architecture flourished during the rule of Chandellas. The Khajuraho temples in Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage site by UNESCO.

The Kalachuri’s of Tripuri

Oct 19, 2015
The Kalachuri dynasty consists of two kingdoms, one ruling over the Central India (Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Malwa, and Maharashtra) called “Chedi”, and the other Haihaya ruled over Southern India (Karnataka).The time period was from 10-12th century. The Kalachuri’s were ancient people from epics and Puranas. The Kalachuri’s of Chedi are also known as Kings of Dahalas, capital of Tripura, 6 kilometres away from Jubbulpore (modern Jabalpur).

Chahamans or Chauhanas of Shakambhari

Oct 19, 2015
Rajput’s are regarded as the brave and courageous fighters in the history of India. The Rajputs are known for their pride, at that time they were strong enough to think of themselves as self-sufficient rulers.  The Chauhan dynasty ruled Shakambari region in 11th century, it was a politically strong dynasty known for its policies. The great Rajputs were the kings of Chauhan dynasty known for their bravery and loyalty. It originally belonged to Agnivanshi Clan (descendants of the Fire God).

The Gahadavals of Kannauj

Oct 19, 2015
The Gahadavals of Kannauj ruled North India in the mid of 11th century till the mid of 13th century AD. The origin of this family is Banaras (Varanasi) and Oudh (Ayodhaya) in Utter Pradesh. The Gahadaval kingdom expanded till Delhi and moved eastward to Patna and Munjar areas of Bihar. During the time of Govinchandra, this dynasty reached the summit of its power. The weakness of this ruling was exposed late in the 12th century AD during the invasions of Muhammad of Ghur.

The Senas of Bengal

Oct 19, 2015
The Sena Empire, a Hindu dynasty, ruled from Bengal from the 11th to 12th centuries. The Sena rulers merged the caste framework in Bengal. Albeit Bengal acquired from the standing arrangement of Mithila, position was not all that solid in Bengal as in Mithila. The Sena administration is acclaimed for building Hindu temples and religious communities, which incorporate the prestigious Dhakeshwari Temple in what is presently Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Kashmir, the line additionally likely fabricated a temple, which is credited to a Gaureshwara or Ballala Sena.

Kannauj after Harsha

Oct 14, 2015
During 730 AD, Yashovarman set up a kingdom at Kannauj. His invasion of Gauda (Bengal) formed the context of the Prakrit poem Gaudavaho (Slaying of the ruler of Gauda), made by his courtier Vakapatiraja in the eighth century. After Yashovarman, three rulers, Vijrayudha, Indrayudha and Chakrayudha, ruled over Kannauj between close of the eighth century till the 820AD. Towards the successor's end of Nagabhata II, effectively assaulted Kannauj and set up control there.

The Palas

Oct 14, 2015
The Pala Empire was a Buddhist supreme power in ancient India. The kingdom was focused around present-day Bangladesh and eastern India. The Palas had introduced a time of soundness and thriving in the Bengal-Bihar region. They were the supporters of the Mahayana and Vajrayana schools of Buddhism. They made numerous extraordinary temples and works of art, which also included the Somapura Mahavihara. The prestigious universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila prospered under their support.

The Rashtrakutas

Oct 14, 2015
The origin of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty has been a disputable subject and has been debated over the previous decades by historians. The varying views basically revolve around issues, for example, the home of the most punctual precursors of the medieval Rashtrakutas and the relationship between the few Rashtrakuta lines that ruled little kingdoms in Northern and focal India and the Deccan in the sixth century - seventh century.

Administration during Akbar Rule

Sep 14, 2015
When Akbar came to the throne he made it sure that his people were well taken care of. He was a strong administrator who made great amendments in the systems. Akbar was uneducated and had never been into formal studies but his ideas were immensely expressed and well planned that were instrumental in bringing changes in the overall decorum of the society. Great changes were witnessed in the society in Akbar’s rule and these were highly appreciated by people of his kingdom.

Invasion of Timur on India: Causes and Consequences

Sep 14, 2015
Timur, better known as, Taimur was given the title of ‘Taimur Lang’,  because his one leg got  wound in the battlefield and compelled the Taimur  to walk with a limp. Taimur was an invader from Central Asia who dreamt of becoming the famous conquerors of the world.

Ibn Battuta’s Memoir on Tughlaq Dynasty

Sep 14, 2015
The full name of Ibn Battuta was Muhammad Ibn Battuta (a Moroccan Muslim voyage). He was born on February 25, 1304 in medieval era in Islamic family. By profession he was a Geographer, Jurist, Judge and an Explorer. Ibn Battuta left out an exclusive note on Tughlaq dynasty.

Cultural Development during Mughal Era

Sep 14, 2015
Mughal ruler such as Babur, Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir were known to spread cultural development in our country. The maximum works in this field was done during Mughal rule. Mughal rulers were fond of culture; therefore all were in the support of spreading education. The Mughal traditions highly influenced the palaces and forts of many regional and local kingdoms.

Babur (Zahir-ud-din Muhammad)

Sep 14, 2015
Babur was born on February 14, 1483, in Fergana which is now in Uzbekistan. Emperor Babur was the founder of Mughal Empire in India. His name was derived from Persian language, "Babur "which means lion. Babur was a successor of Tamerlane from his father's side and Genghis Khan from his mother's side. He died December 26, 1530 in Agra.

Aurangzeb -Emperor of Mughal India

Sep 14, 2015
Aurangzeb ascended the throne in 1659 A.D. after a long and bitter struggle with his father and three brothers. In all, Aurangzeb’s Empire comprises of 21 provinces, covering a geographical spread from Afghanistan in the northwest to the eastern extremity of Bengal in the east and from Kashmir in the north to the Carnatic in the south.

Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan

Sep 8, 2015
The Fifth Mughal Emperor of India was Shah Jahan, and was considered as the best Mughal emperor. He was extremely anxious to enlarge his enormous kingdom. Shah Jahan was restricted via his child and heir Aurangzeb in Agra Fort, in 1658, when he fell sick. His approach towards non - Muslims was less liberal, as he was an Orthodox Muslim, as compared with the behaviour of his father and grandfather Jahangir and Akbar, respectively, towards Non - Muslims.

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