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Introduction to Physics

Dec 10, 2010
Physics is the study of the basic laws that govern matter.

Heat and Work

Dec 10, 2010
Modern physics sees heat as energy collectively possessed by the particles making up a gas, liquid or solid. A body which possesses energy has the ability to do work.

Electromagnetism

Dec 10, 2010
Electromagnetism is the study of the effects caused by stationary and moving electric charges.

Electric Current

Dec 10, 2010
In the late 1790s, Count Alessandro Volta made the first battery. The first practical primary cell (non-rechargeable) was produced by John Frederic Daniell (1790-1845) in 1836, using zinc and copper electrodes. This was followed by the first secondary (rechargeable) cell invented by Gaston Plante (1834-89) in 1859.

Atomic Theories

Dec 10, 2010
John Dalton revolutionized science in 1803 when he hypothesized that atoms of different chemical elements, such as hydrogen and oxygen, had different characteristic masses. J.J. Thomson discovered the first subatomic particle -the electron - in 1897.

The Elements

Dec 10, 2010
It was Lavoisier who produced the first fairly reliable list of elements. However, it contained substances which had not, up to that time, yielded up their true elements, such as magnesia.

States of Matter

Dec 10, 2010
Matter can exist in three states - solid, liquid or gas (vapour). Virtually all substances are able to exist in more than one of these three states.

Organic Chemistry

Dec 10, 2010
Organic Chemistry

Modern chemistry

Dec 10, 2010
Modern chemistry is the study of the building blocks of matter and the fundamental units of chemistry are elements. There are about 90 naturally occurring elements.

Chemical Reactions

Dec 10, 2010
Chemical reactions occur all the time - when fuels are burnt, in the industrial extraction of metals from their ores, and in many natural life processes.

Chemical Groups

Dec 10, 2010
The broad classifications of the elements is metals and non-metals.

Chemical Bonds

Dec 10, 2010
Although there are only 112 known elements, there are millions of chemical substances found in nature or made artificially.

Atomic Structure

Dec 10, 2010
Atoms are the smallest particle of an element that can exist, and can be regarded as the building blocks of everything. Atoms can combine to form molecules.

Biology: The Science of Life

Dec 10, 2010
The aim of biology is to explain the living world in terms of scientific principles. Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher and teacher, is known as the father of biology and the French naturalist, Jean Baptiste-de Lamarck, was the first to used the word ‘biology’ in 1800.

The Heart

Dec 10, 2010
Its average weight is about 340 grams in men and 255 grams in women. The left half and the right half of the heart is divided by a wall called septum. Each half, in turn, is divided into an upper chamber called the auricle and a lower chamber called the ventricle.

The Cell: Foundation Of All Living Things

Dec 10, 2010
Cells are the basic units of life. They are the smallest parts of a living organism that can lead an independent existence. Singly, or in association with other cells, they make up the bodies of all living things.

Food

Dec 10, 2010
Food

Evolution: The Theory Of Evolution

Dec 10, 2010
The French biologist Lamarck proposed, in 1809, a hypothesis to account for the mechanism of evolution, based on two conditions: the use and disuse of parts, and the inheritance of acquired characteristics.

Composition of the blood

Dec 10, 2010
Blood consists of a faintly yellow fluid, the plasma or liquor sanguinis, in which are suspended numerous minute particles, the blood corpuscles, the majority of which are coloured and give the blood its red tint.

Common Diseases

Dec 10, 2010
Common Diseases

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