To ensure happy and healthy life it is necessary to live in the cleanest countries of the world which are free from pollution or at least non-polluted. As, the polluted air contains very small particles known as particulate matter like dust, dirt, smoke, pollen etc. which can be inhaled easily and cause severe respiratory or chronic diseases and also difficulty in breathing. This may be difficult to cure and may lead to death. Polluted countries are not only poor countries even rich countries are also facing the problem of air pollution. PM 2.5 is the best indicator which is used to measure the health impacts from air pollution and the concentration of air pollution is measured in micrograms per cubic meter of air.
Pollution is one of the wider aspects of environmental issues in China which is posing great threat to health. As capital of China, Beijing is suffering from PM 2.5 which stands for the size of the particles of pollution. The 2.5 size is the most detrimental because it can travel deep in to the lungs and cause a variety of ailments. These particles may be dust, smoke or mold etc. Such fine particles can cause asthma, bronchitis, acute and chronic respiratory symptoms, painful breathing and may leads to premature death.
To reduce air pollution, the Chinese Government has made laws and working in many streams:
- They have planned to tackle air pollution problem on its official website. The main goal of the plan is to reduce coal consumption by closing polluting mills, factories, smelters and switching to other eco-friendly energy sources.
- Focussing on the development of other energy sources like nuclear, hydro and compressed natural gas to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
- To achieve negative coal consumption growth by 2017 by replacing coal with electricity generated from natural gas and non-fossil fuel energy. Aims in making completely coal-free by 2020.
- Installed Air purifiers and Home Pollution detectors. Birdi is a device which appears similar in style to a traditional smoke detector, but also monitors the air quality in a room (and acts as a carbon monoxide detector as well as a fire and smoke alarm).
- Electronic trees. A water filtration system to remove carbon dioxide and bacteria from the air. The Super tree can purify up to 200,000 cubic meters of air per day.
- Building airtight domes. The Sports Dome, at Dulwich College Beijing covers around four badminton courts and enables students to play sports without suffering the city’s pollution.
2. U.S. Or America
We know America is a giant power but it is also one of the worst countries in terms of Carbon Dioxide emissions or air pollution. 17th annual report 2015 shows that the city is facing worst particle pollution problem. Increased heat, changes in climate patterns, drought and wild fires are all related to climate change, which has contributed to the extraordinarily high numbers of days with unhealthy particulate matter.
The Government announces strong measures to cut back CO2 emissions having more than 600 electric power stations.
- The state had cut down various coal-power plants and vehicles.
- Advancement in green technology.
- The Control Strategy Tool supports the assessment of emission reductions.
- Weatherization assistance Program.
- Commercial Building and Residential Building integration build America Project. In this project the hydraulic fracturing boom technique is used which helps in releasing less carbon dioxide in to the Earth’s atmosphere rather than coal or oil.
* Hydraulic Fracturing is a technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
This country is experiencing economic development in recent years which further somewhere results in to the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. This is also increased due to the speedy deforestation of the Amazon region.
Measures taken by the Government to curb the air pollution are:
- Using of lead-free gasoline in the vehicles.
- Improving the quality of diesel by lowering its sulphur content.
- More fuel efficient vehicles are used like hybrid gas-electric vehicles.
- Greenpeace organisation a Non Governmental organisation helps in defending the environment by raising awareness about environmental issues and influence people to change their habits.
- Adoption of biomass cook stoves with chimneys or use of LPG or natural gas which is free from PM 2.5
Here also the pollution is getting worse day by day basically in Fukushima which is just at the tip of the iceberg. 3.8% target is set up by the Japanese government to reduce emissions by 2020. In 2014 the pollution was raised highest and it was recommended to use masks and limit trips abroad.
Further measures taken by the government are:
- Desulfurizing fuel gas, popularising dust collectors, improving combustion in automobile engines and converting fuel to unleaded gasoline.
- "Environmental Pollution Diet Session" was held in 1970, to regulate the use of harmful substances like nitrogen oxides, fluorine, chlorine, cadmium etc.
- Automobile NOx Reduction Law to achieve environmental standards for NOx and Diesel Vehicle Regulation.
- Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles, electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles are low-emission vehicles which are promoted to use them in the cars.
It ranks as the second worst polluted country on earth with PM 2.5. It is due to the heavy construction in the small area and biggest growing international airports have converged to create truly terrible air quality.
Measures taken by Qatar to reduce air pollution are:
- The Sahara Forest Project, as the name suggest it is not like that; there is no Sahara desert in Qatar but the art or techniques to plant trees, bushes and bring sustainable water and energy designs like that of desert surrounding the city’s countryside.
- To reduce the desert temperatures, they trap seawater and evaporate it in to the air so that humid climate is generated. Due to this pollution level will be decreased in Qatar.
- Removing some desert ecosystems which are existing since thousands of years which don't pave much impact on an overall environment stability.
So, we have seen that the main cause of climate change is anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission. And it is necessary to curb the emissions and pressure exerted by the humans on the planet. And now the situation is critical, the International Energy Agency’s assessment says if we continue emissions like this it will be 130% by 2050.