Balochistan Province of Pakistan: Facts on its Geography and Economy

Balochistan Province means land of the Baloch peoples. It is not a country but one of the four provinces of Pakistan.Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan in terms of land area. Balochistan's capital is Quetta which is its largest city as well. Balochistan Province is underdeveloped and its economy is dominated by natural resources, especially its natural gas fields.
Oct 30, 2019 15:33 IST
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Balochistan map
Balochistan map

Balochistan Province is in the news due to atrocities on the Baloch people by the Pakistan military. Out of 12.34 million total population of the Balochistan  around 52% population is Baloch and 36% is Pashtuns while remaining 12% comprises of smaller communities; Brahuis, Hazaras , Sindhis, Punjabis, Uzbeks and Turkmens.

Statistics on Balochistan Province

Population: 12.34 million (2017 census data)

Capital: Quetta

Area: 134,051 mi²

Ethnic Groups: Baloch, Brahui and Pashtuns

Language: Balochi, Urdu, Pashto and Brahui

Religion: Sikhism, Hinduism, Parseeism, Islam

Geographical location of the Balochistan Province;

Balochistan is presently situated between the three nations; Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. It is located in southwest Pakistan, south to Afghanistan and  east of Iran.

Balochistan province has been divided into six divisions – Quetta, Kalat, Nasirabad, Makran, Sibi and Zhob. These six divisions are further subdivided into 34 districts.

The area of the Balochistan is around 40% of the total area of the PAK. Pakistan is heavily dependent on the natural resources available in Balochistan region. 

Its natural gas fields, estimated to have sufficient capacity to fulfil Pakistan's demands over the medium to long term. 

Climate of the Balochistan Province

The overall climate of the Balochistan province is extreme. The plains ares of the region are 
also very hot in summer, with temperatures reaching 50 °C (122 °F). The record highest temperature, 53 °C (127 °F), was recorded in Sibi on 26 May 2010. The climate of the upper areas has very cold winters and hot summers. 

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Economy of the Balochistan Province

The economy of Balochistan is mainly based upon the production of natural gas, coal and other minerals like gold, copper etc.

Agricultural development could not take place due to absence of power, water and adequate transportation facilities.

Wheat, rice, jowar are the major food crops, and fruits are the principal cash crops. In addition to this great majority of the population is involved in the sheep grazing.

The sheep provide a high-quality wool, a part of which is exported. Small scale industries are confined to cotton and woolen manufacturing, carpet making, textile, leather embroidery and food processing.

Due to hilly areas; the transportation facilities are not much developed. Quetta is a centre of the railway network, and its airport offers domestic service.

Despite being rich in natural resources the people of this region are living in the extreme poor conditions. Much of the population is illiterate, malnourished living without electricity or clean drinking water.

Education in the Balochistan Province:

The literacy level is very pathetic in the Balochaistan province because only 27 out of hundred adults are literate and the adult literacy rate is male 38% and female 13% in the province (source:

Pakistan failed to provide basic facilities to the people of Balochistan province, including educating children. The situation of the girl education is very dismal because nine out of every ten girls are out of school in rural Balochistan. It means the young girls are dropping out of school at an alarming rate. 

So the above data proves that Balochistan province of the Pakistan is in very pathetic condition. Perhaps this is the reason that the Baloch people are protesting to become an independent nation.

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