In India, the Election Commission of India is responsible for conducting elections of Lok Sabha, Legislative Assembly, President and Vice President of India. The Election Commission registers various political parties and gives them status of national or state parties on the basis of their performance in the elections.
At on April 23, 2019; there are 7 National Parties, 59 State Parties and 329 Regional Parties in the country.
It is also important to keep in mind that there are other registered political parties in the country which are registered with the Election Commission but declared non-recognized party. The number of non-recognized parties in the country is approximately 2293.
List of National Parties in India is;
1. All India Trinamool Congress (TMC)
2. Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)
3. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
4. Communist Party of India (CPI)
5. Indian National Congress (INC)
6. Marxist Communist Party CPI (M)
7. Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)
Criteria for National Party in India:-
A registered party is recognised as a National Party only if it fulfils any one of the following three conditions:
1. If a party wins 2% of seats in the Lok Sabha (as of 2014, 11 seats) from at least 3 different States. or
2. At a General Election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party polls 6% of votes in four States in addition to 4 Lok Sabha seats. or
3. A party is recognised as a State Party in four or more States.
Let us know in this article that if a party is a national party, then what kinds of facilities are given by the Election Commission?
Benefits/ Facilities to National Party are as follows;
1. Recognition as a national or a State party ensures that the election symbol of that party can't be used by any other political party in polls across India.
2. Recognized 'State' and 'National' party requires only one proposer to file nomination.
3. The recognized 'state' and National Parties are given two sets of electoral rolls free of cost by the Election Commission. In addition to this the candidates contesting on the ticket of National or state party get a copy of the electoral roll free of cost during the general elections.
4. The National parties receive land or building from the government to establish their party office.
5. National parties can have upto 40 star campaigners while other can have upto 20 star campaigners. The expenditure incurred on the travelling and other expenses of star campaigners is not included in the election expenditure of the party candidate.
6. National Parties get the time slot on the national and state television & Radio to address the people and convey their message to the mass people.
The Election Commission had amended a rule on August 22, 2016, under which it will now review the national and state status of political parties in every ten years instead of five. So now the status of present national and state party will remain intact till 2026.
It is observed that a lot of political parties are created to 'round trip' the black money into white.
The Election Commission has the mandate to register a political party, but it can't deregister any party. The EC is demanding to get power to deregister a party. But this demand is pending with the Law Ministry.
But the Commission had used its powers under Article 324 of the Constitution to "delist" parties for being dormant and not contesting elections for a long time.
So it is the need of the hour that government should take every strict action to bring out transparency in the elections.
Now we hope that you must understand that what types of benefits are enjoyed by the National Parties in India?