What is the difference between In situ and Ex situ Conservation?

In situ and Ex-situ, both are the method of conservation. In this article, we are giving the difference between In situ and Ex-situ Conservation which is very useful for competitive examinations like UPSC IAS, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways, etc.
Created On: Nov 18, 2020 10:43 IST
Modified On: Nov 18, 2020 10:43 IST
Difference between In situ and Ex situ Conservation
Difference between In situ and Ex situ Conservation

Biodiversity possesses rich and diverse fauna and flora and unique natural beauty in its different ecosystems. The maintenance of species and ecosystems is a keystone to sustainable development. Therefore, the protection and efficient management of wild species and their environment is the prime objective of conservation. This conservation is usually carried out in two ways. We have discussed both the conservation methods in detail and the major differences between the two. 

Also Read: Biosphere Reserves in India |Biodiversity Hotspots of the World

What is In situ Conservation?

In situ Conservation is one of the methods of the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species. In other words, it is a set of conservation techniques involving the designation, management, and monitoring of biodiversity in the same area where it is encountered.

What is Ex-situ Conservation?

Ex-situ conservation is the relocation of endangered or rare species from their natural habitats to protected areas equipped for their protection and preservation.

Objectives of the Conservation

Conservation means the judicious use of natural resources preventing wastage and degradation. There two important objectives of conservation which are given below:

1. Preserving the quality and purity of the environment.

2. Establishing a balanced cycle of harvest and renewal so that a continuous supply of natural resources is ensured. 

Bio-geographic regions and Bio-geographic provinces of India

Difference between In situ and Ex-situ Conservation

In situ Conservation

Ex situ Conservation

It means the conservation of biodiversity in their natural habitats itself.

It means the conservation of biological diversity outside their natural areas

Protected areas are the sanctuaries and national parks.

Artificial conditions are created to make their habitat almost like a natural habitat.

It aims to enable biodiversity to maintain itself within the context of the ecosystem.

It involves the maintenance of genetic variation (Genetic Conservation) away from its original location.

Establish a protected area network, with appropriate management practices, corridors to link fragments restore degraded habitats within and outside.

Established botanical and zoological gardens, conservation stands; banks of germplasm, pollen, seed, seedling, tissue culture, gene, and DNA, etc.

It involves the reduction of biotic pressure rehabilitation

It identifies and rehabilitates threatened species; launched augmentation, reintroduction, or introduction programs.

It helps in the multiplication of the species through the process of evolution and adaptation.

This method will enhance the probability of reproductive success for endangered species.

It provides greater mobility to the animal species because of the large habitat area.

It provides less mobility to the organism because of the small habitat area.

Example- National parks, biosphere reserves, parks, sanctuaries.

Example- Zoo, aquarium, seed banks, botanical gardens, etc. 

Hence, we can say that both In situ and Ex-situ are the method of conservation. The basic difference between in situ and ex-situ lies in the habitat place where the process is carried out.

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