As we know that every country of the world has some secret agencies like USA has CIA, Russia has KGB, Pakistan has ISI and Israel has Mossad. In India prominent intelligence agencies are IB, RAW, NIA and CBI. In this article we are explaining the differences between the IB and RAW.
About Intelligence Bureau
Intelligence Bureau (IB) was founded during the British colonial rule. The unsuccessful Sipoy’s Mutiny in 1857 compelled the English to create an intelligence organisation that can have eyes on the activities of the Indian mutinous and rulers in different parts of India.
IB was founded on December 23, 1887, as the “Central Special Branch” by the Secretary of State for India in London. It is renamed as Intelligence Bureau in 1920.
The Intelligence Bureau (IB), considered the oldest surviving intelligence organization in the world, serves as India’s internal security agency responsible for detecting domestic threats.
IB, doesn’t have specified set of functions. The major functions of the IB can be classified as counterintelligence, counterterrorism, VIP Security, anti-secession activities, intelligence collection in border areas and infrastructure protection.
IB also maintains partnerships with foreign agencies, including security agencies in the U.S, U.K and Israel. IB technically falls under the authority of Ministry of Home Affairs.
About Research and Analysis Wing (RAW)
Until 1968, the Intelligence Bureau (IB), was responsible for India’s internal intelligence but handled external intelligence also. After the poor performance of Indian intelligence in the war of 1962 against China and 1965 against Pakistan the government felt the need of a separate external intelligence agency. So the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) was founded in 1968 to counter primarily China & Pakistan.
RAW provides intelligence to policymakers and the army. Raw keeps close eyes on the activities of the neighbouring countries (China, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar etc.) of India. The primary focus of RAW remains on the China and Pakistan.
RAW played a significant role in the formation of Bangladesh. RAW trained and armed Mukti Bahini, a group of East Pakistanis fighting for the separate state of Bangladesh.
Differences between IB and RAW are as follows;
1. IB is the Intelligence Bureau of India and is India’s internal intelligence agency. RAW is the Research and Analysis Wing of India and is India’s external intelligence agency.
2. Main functions of the IB include the counterintelligence, counterterrorism, VIP Security, anti-secession activities and intelligence collection in border areas. Raw on the other hand collects the secret information about the activities of neighbours. One of its primary functions is covert operations. It also has a good amount of contribution in Indian foreign policy making.
3. IB established in 1887, regarded as the oldest intelligence agency in the world. IB is under the governance of the Ministry of Home Affairs. RAW on the other hand started in 1968, placed directly under the India Prime Minister’s office.
4. IB was originally established after the sepoy mutiny of 1857 while Raw came into existence after the failure of the Indian intelligence in the war of 1962 and 1965.
5. IB & RAW were established with different motives. IB was established to suppress the Indian mutiny and spy against Indian kings and rebellions while RAW was established to spy activities of the neighbouring countries of India.
6. IB has employees from the Indian Police Service, law enforcement agencies and the military. Initially RAW was dependent on the services of trained intelligence officers. Later candidates from military, police and other services too were also recruited by RAW. Now RAW has its own service cadre called the Research and Analysis Service (RAS).
7. As a matter of fact IB passes on intelligence between other Indian intelligence agencies and the police as well. The IB is given the power to conduct wiretapping even without warrant. RAW expertises in the collection of intelligence via bribery and sabotage, espionage and psychological warfare.
So from the above points it can be concluded that the basic motive behind the establishment of the intelligence bureau and RAW is to protect the India from the internal and external enemies of the country.