Economic Policy and Administration under Khilji Dynasty
The Khilji rulers imprint out their heredity to Central Asia and were of Turkish origin. They had been settled for a long time in present-day Afghanistan before coming to Delhi in India. The important rulers of the Khilji Dynasty were:
- Jalal-ud-din Khilji: Jalal-ud-din Firuz Khilji was appointed as sultan by a group of Muslim Amirs of Turkic, Persian, Arabic gatherings, and Indian-Muslim individuals.
- Alauddin Khilji: Juna Khan, later known as Alauddin Khilji, was the nephew and son-in-law of Jalal-ud-din; hit the Hindu Deccan peninsula, Deogiri which was the capital of the Hindu of Maharashtra. He returned to Delhi in 1296, killed his uncle and father-in-law, and gained power as Sultan.
- The last Khilji Sultans:
- Alauddin Khilji died in December 1315. By then, Malik Kafur's transformed into the sultan.
- After Malik Kafur's death, the Muslim Amirs presented Shihab-ud-din Omar, as Sultan, and made his elder sibling Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah as his substitute; in any case he gets executed.
- Mubarak Shah ruled for 4 years, and then was executed in 1320 by Khusraw Khan.
- The Muslim Amirs in Delhi invited Ghazi Malik to overthrow Khusraw Khan and executed him, and made him as Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, the first pioneer of the Tughluq administration.
Economic policy and administration under the Khilji dynasty were very strict and was all in hands of the King. The situation of peasants, businessmen, and the common man was very poor and sometimes hard to sustain. A few of these policies are listed below:
- Khilji rulers especially Alauddin Khilji changed the expense approaches just to increase his treasury and to pay his obligations and store for his wars of expansion.
- He raised agribusiness taxes straightforwardly from 20% to 50%, payable in kind of grain and rural produce or with cash and he discarded installments.
- Alauddin Khilji maintained four sorts of charges on non-Muslims in the Sultanate, called as jizya or poll tax, kharaj or land tax, kari or house tax and the last one chari as field duty.
- He moreover announced that his Delhi-based officers along with neighbourhood Muslim jagirdars, khuts, mukkadims, chaudharis and zamindars can seize by force half of all produce as a cost on standing yield, so as to fill sultanate storerooms.
- Wage assignments to Muslim jagirdars dropped and the wage was accumulated by the central organization.
- There was a type of quality controls on all agribusiness produce, animals, and slaves in the kingdom, furthermore, controls were implemented on where, how and by whom these could be sold.
- Markets called Shahana-i-Mandi were made. Muslim shippers were yielded particular licenses and a plan of action in this mandi to buy and trade.
- No one other than these merchants could buy from agriculturists or offer in urban zones.
- There was an expansive arrangement of detectives who may screen the mandi and had the capacity to seize anyone trying to buy or offer anything out of the proposed limit.
- The private stockpiling of sustenance was banned. The distributing system was introduced by Alauddin and there was a system of quality control.
- These controls diminished expenses, furthermore conveyed wages down to a point where standard people were not benefited.
- The method of quality control could not work much after the death of Alauddin Khilji.