The Engineering Industry is the largest among all industrial sectors in India. It incorporates diverse segments of industry which can be broadly divided into two segments, namely, heavy engineering and light engineering. It is relatively less fragmented at the top, as the competencies required are high, while it is highly fragmented at the lower end (e.g. unbranded transformers for the retail segment) and is dominated by smaller players. The engineering industry in India manufactures a wide range of products, with heavy engineering goods accounting for bulk of the production. Most of the leading players are engaged in the production of heavy engineering goods and mainly produces high-value products using high-end technology.
Heavy Engineering Industry
The heavy engineering industry in the country began in 1958 with the setting up of the Heavy Engineering Corporation Limited (HEC), Ranchi, and Jharkhand. It was set up with the help of Russia and Czechoslovakia.
• A plant named Triveni Structurals Limited was established in 1965 in Naini (Allahabad) with the help of Austria for making designs of special kinds of steel frames.
• Tungabhadra Steel Products Limited, Tungabhadra, Karnataka is a major unit for heavy engineering production.
• Bharat Heavy Plate and Vessels Limited was set up in 1966 in Vishakhapatnam with the help of Czechoslovakia. Here, machines are made for fertilizers, petrochemicals and other related industries.
• Bharat Pumps and Compressors Limited was set up in Naini (Allahabad).
• Mining and Allied Machinery Corporation Limited (MAMC) was set up in Durgapur for making machines used in mining.
• TEXMACO (a private sector undertaking) was set' up in 1939 in Mumbai for making textile machines.
• Heavy Machine Tools Plant is in Ranchi (Jharkhand). Here, axles and wheels are produced
Several plants in the country have been set up for making machine tools. Of these, 'Hindustan Machine Tools' (HMT), Bengaluru is the prominent one. It was set up in 1953 with the assistance of Switzerland. The units of HMT, besides Bengaluru, are at Pinjore (Haryana), Kalamassery (Kerala), Hyderabad (Telangana), Ajmer (Rajasthan) and Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir). HMT is a public sector undertaking company. It manufactures tractors, watches, industrial machines and tools. In September 2014, the Government of India decided to shut down HMT watch plants in phased manner.
Heavy Electric Machinery
'The Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited' (BHEL) has been set up in public sector for manufacturing electric machinery in the country. Its plants are in Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Hyderabad, Haridwar, Ranipet, Bengaluru and Jamshedpur.
'The Indian Telephone Industries' was set up in 1950 in Bengaluru. Its units are in Srinagar, Raebareli and Naini (Allahabad). 'The Bharat Electronics Limited' (BEL) was set up in Bengaluru in the decade of 1950s. It manufactures electronic tools related to army, radio station and metrology. 'The Hindustan Cables' manufactures telephone wires. Its plants are in Roopnarayanpur (Burdwan district, West Bengal) and Hyderabad.
Information Technology Industry
It includes Electronic communication (telecommunication, radio, television) and computer. Bengaluru is the major centre for information technology. It is called the 'silicon valley of India'.
Locomotive factories had been set up in Jamalpur (Bihar) and Ajmer (Rajasthan) in the later half of the 19th century by the railways, but they were closed because of the lack of encouragement by the British government. At present there are two major locomotive factories:
(A) Chitranjan Locomotive Works, Chitranjan (West Bengal)- Established in 1950. Here, electric locomotives are manufactured.
(B) Diesel Locomotive Works, Maduadih (Varanasi)-It was set up in 1961 with the assistance of the American company Alco. Here, diesel locomotives are manufactured.
• Tata Engineering and Locomotive Works (TELCO), Jamshedpur (1952)-Here steam locomotives were manufactured. But locomotive manufacturing is closed since 1970.
• Diesel Components Works, Patiala (Punjab)-Here, components for repairing of diesel locomotives are made.
• Integral Coach Factory, Perambur (Tamil Nadu)-It was set up in 1955 with the assistance of Switzerland. Here, general and air-conditioned coaches are manufactured.
• Rail Coach Factory, Kapurthala (punjab)-Here, rail coaches are manufactured.
• Messers Jessops, Kolkata and the Bharat Earth Movers Limited, Bengaluru (Karnataka) also manufacture passenger coaches and outfitting.
• A plant for manufacturing coach wheel and axle is in Bengaluru.
• There is a plan for setting up of a coach wheel manufacturing plant in Chapra, Bihar. It has been announced to set up a plant in Madhepura (Bihar) for manufacturing locomotives.
• There is another plan for setting up of diesel locomotive plant in Marhowrah (Saran, Bihar).
• It has been announced recently to set up a rail coach factory in Raebareli (UP) but this matter is pending because of dispute in land acquisition.