Environmental movements and acts of the Government
India is a land of Gandian philosophy who advocates the economic growth but on the basis of the sustainable growth. The movements related to environment often to as the ecology movement which moving around conservation and green politics to addressing the environmental issues. The axis point of these types of movement are ecology, health and human rights for the grass-roots awareness. In recent years so may grass root environmental movements launched against the developmental activities that have threatened the ecological balance.
It was launched from Gopeshwar in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand in 1973.The movement was to prevent illegal cutting of trees in the Himalayan region (Uttarakhand). Sunderlal Bahuguna and Chandi Prasad Bhatt were the leaders of this movement.The most notable characteristics of this movement was the involvement of women.
In 1983, on the lines of Chipko Movement, Pandurang Hegde launched movement which is come to known as Appiko Movement in Karnataka. Its main objectives were afforestation as well as development, conservation and proper utilization of forests in the best manner. The meaning of “appiko” is to express ones affection for a tree by embracing it.
Silent Valley Movement
It is an area of tropical evergreen forests in Kerala. It is very rich in bio-diversity. The environmentalists and the local people strongly objected to the hydel power project being set up here in 1973. Under pressure, the government had to declare it the national reserve forests in 1985.
Narmada Bachao Movement
The environmentalists and the local people started protest against the building of Dams on the Narmada for the production of hydro-electricity since 1985 which was popularly known as Narmada Bachao Aandolan. Medha Patkar has been the leader of this aandolan who got support from the Arundhati Roy, Baba Amte and Aamir Khan.
Environment related Acts of the Government
• The Environment (Protection) act, 1986
• The National Environment Tribunal Act, 1995
• The National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1977
• The Tribunal Bill, 2009 (Currently pending in the Parliament)
• The Indian Forest Act, 1927
• The Forest Conservation Act, 1980
• The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 1960
• The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972
• The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960
• The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Act, 2001
• The Biological Diversity Act, 2002
• The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977
• The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1987
• Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000