Firoz Shah Tuglaq
Firoz Shah Tuglaq was a Turkish leader who was born in 1309 and was in power in Delhi from 1351 to 1388. He was the child of a Hindu princess of Dipalpur. His dad's name was Rajab who was younger sibling of Ghazi Malik who carried the title of Sipahsalar.
|The Tughlaq Dynasty|
|Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq||1320-24 AD|
|Muhammad Tughlaq||1324-51 AD|
|Firoz Shah Tughlaq||1351-88 AD|
|Mohammad Khan||1388 AD|
|Ghiyassuddin Tughlaq Shah II||1388 AD|
|Abu Baqr||1389-90 AD|
|Nasiruddin Muhammad||1390-94 AD|
|Nasiruddin Mahmud||1395-1412 AD|
He was the third ruler of Tughlaq dynasty after the death of Mohammad-bin Tughlaq. Mohammad-bin Tughlaq Son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ascended the throne in 1325. He passed away in Thatta while battling in Sindh against Taghi, a Turkish slave. After his demise the nobles and specialists at the court chose Muhammad's cousin Firoz ShahTughlaq as the following Sultan, in 1351.
He wrote his autobiography called Futuhat-e-firozshahi. We have most of the information from this.
Firoz was majorly depended on an earlier commander, Malik Maqbul who accepted Islam after he was arrested. Sultan used to call him khan-i-jahan which meant real ruler. Malik helped him in his rule when he was on expeditions. Tughlaq decided not to repeat the mistakes done by his cousin Muhammad's. He chose not to reconquer territories that had split away, nor to keep further regions from taking their autonomy.
Firoz gave various imperative concessions to the scholars. He attempted to boycott practices which the standard scholars considered un-Islamic. In this manner, he denied the act of Muslim ladies going out to pray at the graves of holy people. He mistreated various Muslim groups which were viewed as unorthodox by the scholars.
Firoz provided the principal of inheritance to the armed force. Officers were permitted to rest and enjoy and send their children in army in their place. The officers were not paid in real money but rather by projects on land revenue income of towns. This novel strategy of instalment prompted numerous misuses.
He was a typical Muslim who destroyed Hindu temples, their books and literature. Their was transformed to either Sanskrit or Persian language. He attempted to win over the specialists declaring that he was a genuine Muslim ruler and the state under him was really Islamic.
He worked majorly in the development of infrastructure such as schools, hospitals, river canals, reservoirs, rest houses etc.
- He established an office for poor and deprived individuals called Diwan-i-Khairat
- He established a department of slave known as Diwan-i-Bundagan
- He declared the Iqtadari framework hereditary.
- He constructed waterways for watering system from:
- Yamuna to the city of Hissar
- the Sutlej to the Ghaggar
- the Ghaggar to Firuzabad
- Mandvi and Sirmour Hills to Hansi in Haryana.
- He is known to establish four new towns, Firuzabad, Fatebabad, Jaunpur and Hissar.
- He was the one who started Imposition of Jaziya on the Brahmans.
- He established several hospitals portrayed differently as Darul-Shifa, Bimaristan or Shifa Khana, in Delhi.
He died in 1388 and the Tughlaq dynasty could not continue much after his death.