Biotechnology as name suggests is the technology of Biology used to harness cellular and bio molecular processes to develop various technologies which help in improving our lives and health on our planet. With the help of this technology, we are able to fight with diseases, saves children’s lives, improved the quality of food, farmers are also able to produce hybrid varieties of crops, etc. This article deals with the descriptive questions and answers on various Biotechnology and its benefits.
Now a day’s trend is changing in examinations and so, there is need to change the method of preparation also. So, these descriptive questions not only enhance your knowledge related to biotechnology, but also help in the preparation of examinations.
1. What in Monoclonal antibody technology?
Ans. Monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are made up of a single clone of cells. They are homogeneous and are highly useful in diagnostic tests and Research. Kohler and Milstein developed a technology named Hybridoma for the production of MABs.
Hybridoma is a hybrid cell formed by the fusion of B cells with myeloma cells i.e. tumour cell. The main principle of this technology is that this cell has the capacity to produce antibody which are derived from B cells and at the same time it can divide the quality derived from Myeloma cells. This Technology ensures large scale antibody production (monoclonal antibodies) by combining the desired qualities of both the cells.
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2. What is Recombinant DNA Technology (rDNA)?
Ans. The two DNA molecules from two different species are joined together when inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic material which will be helpful in medicine, agriculture, industry and science as well. Without gene it is not possible so, main function of genetic laboratory is to isolate, characterize and manipulate genes. Therefore, rDNA technology has made it possible to determine the nucleotide sequence by isolating a gene or any other segment of DNA. With the help of this study of genes, its transcripts, mutation and inserting it into an organism can be understood easily.
3. What do you mean by Antisense technology?
Ans. Antisense is an innovative platform for drug discovery. It provides an alternative treatment for the disorders like cancer, viral and parasitic infections. Antisense RNA is a single stranded RNA, which is complimentary to messenger RNA (mRNA) and is transcribed within a cell.
During a disease, it may be possible to synthesize a strand of nucleic acid like DNA, RNA, etc. Then, with the help of this technique, it will bind to mRNA produced by the gene and inactivate it, turning that gene effectively ‘off’.
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4. What are the benefits of Biotechnology?
Ans. This technology helps plants for pest resistance, helps plants to tolerate the stressful conditions like low temperature, drought, salt in soil, etc., helps to generate vaccines for the animals to fight against diseases, it is also used to produce pharmaceuticals etc.
5. What is Electrophoresis?
Ans. Electrophoresis is also known as Cataphoresis which shows the existence of an electric charge. This method is used in molecular biology and medicine and can be defined as the movement of colloidal particles under the influence of an electric field. When colloidal particles reach the oppositely charged electrode they get neutralized and coagulated.
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6. What does Environmental Biotechnology consists of?
Ans. It is a branch of Biotechnology that solves the environmental problems like to control pollution, production of biomass as a fuel, to clean up the environment with the help of microbes, bioremediation, helps to improve waste water treatment etc.
7. What is Tissue culture?
Ans. Tissue Culture is an artificial growth of tissues or cells in a medium which is derived from living tissue or an organism. Or we can say that a method in which plants or animal tissue is introduced in an artificial environment where they continue to function or grow.