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Hemophilia Disease: Causes, Types and Symptoms

Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder in which blood does not clot properly. Person suffering from this condition experience prolonged bleeding which may be followed by an injury etc. Every year on 17 April World Hemophilia day is celebrated to spread awareness among people about this disease and to provide proper treatment. Let us study in detail about hemophilia disease, how it can be cured, its symptoms, causes, etc. through this article.
Apr 17, 2019 12:19 IST
Hemophilia Disease: Causes, Types and Symptoms

Hemophilia is a genetic disease i.e. it can be caused from parents to child. Usually this disease is more common in males. Chromosomes are the carriers of this disease and as a result blood does not clot due to which bleeding occur.

Patients suffering from Hemophilia disease lack a protein in the blood, which is also called clotting factor. This protein works with the platelets to stop bleeding at the site of an injury. That is after an injury a person bleeds for longer time and also they are more susceptible to internal bleeding. If bleeding is high then it can be deadly.

Types of Hemophilia Disease

Mainly there are two types of Hemophilia disease. Haemophilia A and Hemophilia B.
- Haemophilia A lack factor 8.
- Haemophilia B lacks factor 9

That is, the essential element for blood clotting or clotting is called Factor, which is a clotting protein.

Let us tell you that Hemophilia A is the most common type of Hemophilia. In this disease a person does not have enough clotting factor 8. And Person suffering from Hemophilia B does not have a clotting factor 9. Both the persons suffering from A and B bleed for a longer time than normal. In about one-third of the cases, this is due to spontaneous genetic mutation. Blood disorder affects all ethnic groups equally.

Hemophilia A and B is caused due to X chromosome. We all know that women have two X chromosomes but men have X and Y chromosomes. In males X chromosome comes from mother and Y chromosome from father. These chromosomes determine the gender of the child. Chromosomes contain hemophilia genes. Women are carriers of this disease. That is, in the son X chromosome comes from mother and if X chromosome is infected with hemophilia, then the son will also be affected with hemophilia disease.

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Whereas in the daughter one X chromosome comes from mother and another X chromosome comes from father but if mother is suffering from haemophilia and father is not infected with hemophilia, then the daughter will not have this disease. Mostly, it is seen that from father Hemophilia is not caused to children.

People with hemophilia A and B often have bleeding for a long time as compared to other people. Bleeding or bleed may occur internally in joints and muscles or due to slight cuts, dental procedures or trauma. How often a person is bleeding and the severity of bleeding depends upon how much plasma has factor 8 or 9.

Hemophilia C

Haemophilia C is also a genetic disorder caused by factor 11 clotting protein. This disease was first identified in 1953 in patients who had severe bleeding on their teeth. Hemophilia C is found in every 100,000 people in the general population.

The reason for this is that Factor 11 lacks an autosomal recessive genetic pattern, which means that there will be a gene in both parents, which will cause this disease in the child, which is just opposite to the disease caused by hemophilia A and B.

Symptoms of Hemophilia Disease

The symptoms of this disease are as follows:

- Some type of blue marks occurs in the body.

- Blood clot in the eye and sudden bleeding from the nose.

- Swelling and bleeding in the joints.

- Having convulsion.

- Sudden weakness and difficulty in walking.

- Bleeding in the brain.

- If bleeding stops for sometime but again it starts.

- Blood flow is caused by cutting or rubbing tooth within the mouth.

World Hemophilia Day

In order to spread awareness about hemophilia disease in 1989, World Hemophilia Day was started celebrating throughout the world. Do you know that World Hemophilia Day is celebrated every year on 17th April in honour of the birthday of Frank Schnabell, founder of the World Federation of Hemophilia.

Theme of World Hemophilia Day 2019 is “Outreach and Identification”. It will be observed with the slogan – “Reaching Out: The First Step to Care”.

So, we can say that hemophilia is a condition of bleeding disorder in which blood does not clot and may be dangerous also.

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