Kidney stones are hard deposits made up of minerals and salts or are made up of crystals which form inside the kidneys. These stones can develop anywhere along urinary tract and in kidneys also. The urinary tract consists of kidneys, ureter, bladder and urethra. Stones are formed when urine becomes concentrated, allows minerals to crystallize and stick together. Do you know it causes lots of pain or we can say it is the most painful medical condition? Severe pain that is caused due to kidney stone is called renal colic. Pain can occur on one side of your back or abdomen. These days it is very common disease and mostly found in an individual.
Different types of Kidney stones
1. Calcium Stones: These stones are commonly found. They are made up of calcium oxalate, phosphate or maleate. They tend to form when urine is acidic i.e. having low pH. Some oxalate is produced by the body in urine and also by the liver. Diet plays a crucial role in the formation of stone. Diet consisting of less oxalate-rich foods can reduce the risk of developing this type of calcium stone. Oxalate is found in many vegetables like potato chips, spinach, fruits, nuts, chocolate etc. Even high dose of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery, metabolic disorder also increases the concentration of calcium oxalate in urine.
Calcium stone is also formed in the form of phosphate. In some metabolic conditions this type of stone is found like renal tubular acidosis.
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2. Uric acid Stones: These stones are commonly found in men than in women. People those who have gout or went through chemotherapy have uric acid stones. These stones are formed in those people who drink less fluid, who eat high protein diet, whose urine is most acidic. Some genetic factors also increase the risk of uric acid stones. Purine rich diet increases the level of risk of these stones. Do you know about purine? It is a colourless substance found in animal proteins like fish, shellfish and meats.
3. Struvite Stone: Mostly found in women in urinary tract infection. Sometimes this stone can be large and causes urinary obstruction. Basically caused by kidney infection. Diet does not play important role in this type of stone formation.
4. Cystine Stone: These types of stones are rarely found. In both men and women they occur suffering from genetic disorder cystinuria or we can say that it results from a genetic disorder that causes cystine an amino acid, building block of protein, and leak through the kidneys in to the urine to form crystals.
Symptoms of Kidney Stones
- Urine infection
- Blood in urine
- Foul smell urine
- Urinating small amount of urine
From the above article it is clear how many types of Kidney stones are found in the human body and what are the symptoms when stone is formed in the kidney.