Human Development Index in India
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistics of life expectancy, education, and income indices to rank countries into four tiers of human development. It was created by economist Mahbub-ul-Haq, followed by economist Amartya Sen in 1990, and published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Human Development Report (HDR) presents the Human Development Index (HDI) (values and ranks) for 187 countries and UN-recognized territories, along with the Inequality-adjusted HDI for 145 countries, the Gender Development Index for 148 countries, the Gender Inequality Index for 149 countries, and the Multidimensional Poverty Index for 91 countries. Country rankings and values of the annual Human Development Index (HDI) are kept under strict embargo until the global launch and worldwide electronic release of the Human Development Report.
India’s HDI value and rank
India’s HDI value for 2013 is 0.586— which is in the medium human development category—positioning the country at 135 out of 187 countries and territories. Between 1980 and 2013, India’s HDI value increased from 0.369 to 0.586, an increase of 58.7 percent or an average annual increase of about 1.41 percent. Between 1980 and 2013, India’s life expectancy at birth increased by 11.0 years, mean years of schooling increased by 2.5 years and expected years of schooling increased by 5.3 years. India’s GNI per capita increased by about 306.2 percent between 1980 and 2013.
Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
The 2010 HDR introduced the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), which identifies multiple deprivations in the same households in education, health and living standards. The education and health dimensions are each based on two indicators, while the standard of living dimension is based on six indicators. All of the indicators needed to construct the MPI for a household are taken from the same household survey. The indicators are weighted to create a deprivation score, and the deprivation scores are computed for each household in the survey. A deprivation score of 33.3 percent (one-third of the weighted indicators), is used to distinguish between the poor and non-poor. If the household deprivation score is 33.3 percent or greater, the household (and everyone in it) is classed as multi-dimensionally poor. Households with a deprivation score greater than or equal to 20 percent but less than 33.3 percent are near multidimensional poverty. Definitions of deprivations in each dimension, as well as methodology of the MPI are given in Technical note 5 and in Calderon and Kovacevic 2014. The most recent survey data that were publically available for India MPI estimation refer to 2005/2006.
In India 55.3 percent of the population is multi- dimensionally poor while an additional 18.2 percent are near multidimensional poverty. The breadth of deprivation (intensity) in India, which is the average of deprivation scores experienced by people in multidimensional poverty, is 51.1 percent. The MPI, which is the share of the population that is multi-dimensionally poor, adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations, is 0.282. Bangladesh and Pakistan have MPIs of 0.237 and 0.237 respectively.