The Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is a part of the Indian Struggle for freedom movement comprising the actions of the underground revolutionary factions. There were known & unknown contributors in the India’s struggle movement. It was accompanied by the moderate leadership, extremist leadership and revolutionary activities of Indian youth, but all they were fighting with their own methodologies to end the East India Company rule. The British Government was also involved in the conspiracy to overcome the revolutionary activities against their imperial rule.
1. Muzaffarpur Conspiracy Case (1908 AD)
It was a revolutionary conspiracy by the Khudiran Bose and Praful Chaki to kill the Chief Presidency Magistrate DH Kingsford of Muzaffarpur. They threw bombs on a vehicle of DH Kingsford but he was safe and unfortunately two British women were killed in the attack. Later on Kudiram Bose was arrested by the Indian British police officer Nandalal Banerjee, who was later shot dead by the Narendranath Banerjee. Prafulla Chaki committed suicide when he was about to be arrested by the Police. Khudiram Bose was the youngest India who was hanging by the British.
2. Delhi Conspiracy Case (1912 AD)
This incident was also called as Delhi-Lahore Conspiracy. It was organised by the Indian revolutionary underground in Bengal and Punjab and headed by Rashbehari Bose to assassinate the then Viceroy of India, Lord Hardinge. Basant Kumar Biswas, Amir Chand and Avadh Behari were convicted and executed in the trial of this Delhi Conspiracy Case. Rash Behari Bose was identified as the person who threw the bomb.
3. Peshawar Conspiracy Case (1922-1927 AD)
It was a trail against the Mujahirs, who had tried to sneak in India from Russia in order to start communist movement in India. There were five cases which continued from 1922 to 1927 AD. The Indian Subcontinent British government was terrified by the idea of spread of communism. It was not the only case which became popular and stimulated the imagination of the young population of the Indian Subcontinent, there were similar such cases. Among them, the Kanpur Bolshevik Case of May 1924 can be quoted as a substantiating case.
4. Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case (1924 AD)
In this case, newly emerged communists of India were execrated by the British Government. M N Roy, Muzaffar Ahamed, S A Dange, Shaukat Usmani, Nalini Gupta, Singaravelu Chettiar, Ghulam Hussain were caught by the Government and were trailed for conspiring against the Government. They were charged:
“to deprive the King Emperor of his sovereignty of British India, by complete separation of India from imperialistic Britain by a violent revolution.”
This case was not people movement but British movement to sack the upcoming communist leaders* of the time.
It is also called Kakori train robbery or Kakori Case was a train robbery against the British Indian Government.
It was organised by revolutionary organisation i.e., Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) under the leadership of Ram Prasad Bismil and supported by Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri, Chandrashekhar Azad, Sachindra Bakshi, Keshab Chakravarty, Manmathnath Gupta, Murari Lal Gupta (Murari Lal Khanna), Mukundi Lal (Mukundi Lal Gupta) and Banwari Lal.
Objectives of this robbery
(1) To fund the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) under with funds stolen from the British administration.
(2) To garner public attention by creating a positive image of the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) under among Indians.
6. Meerut Conspiracy Case (1929 AD)
This was immense political significance for the Indian working class movement because it was conspiracy of British Government against the rise of Communism in India. During this case 31 labour leader included three Englishmen were arrested on the charge of conspiracy.
Muzafr Ahamed, S.A Dange, S.V Ghate, Dr. G Adhikari, P.C.Joshi, S.S.Mirajkar, Shaukat Usmani, Philip Stratt etc. were arrested on the charge of conspiracy to overthrow the British Government of India through strikes and other militant methods.
It is interesting to note that the accused in the Meerut Case gained the sympathy of the nationalists.