Fibres are the solid substance which has long chained structure and whose length is much larger than its breadth is called fibres. These are the polymers of so many simple molecules which are composed and combined in laboratories. The synthetic substances Rayon, Nylon, Polyester etc are the examples of synthetic fibres.
Important synthetic fibres
Nylon: The word NYLON has been composed from two words- NY of New York (city of America) and LON of London (capital of UK). Nylon is basically forms by the polymerisation process of smaller and simpler organic molecules which don’t exist in nature; it is an example of polyamide fibre in which amide functional group is present in each unit, and which is repeated again. Also Nylon was the first fibre obtained synthetically. Firstly it was prepared in 1935 and on commercial level in 1939 woman's garment (scarfs) was prepared. At present Nylon is used frequently in making net of fish trapping, cloths of parasuit, tyre, teeth, brushes, ropes etc.
Rayon: The artificial fibre made of cellulose is called Rayon and the Cellulose is extracted from the wood paste or pulp paper. Firstly the cellulose is oxidised in cone and cold NaOH and CS2 then the residues in the form of cellulose solution is passed through the holes of metallic cylinder and dil. H2S04 is poured and very long fibres are prepared. Rayon is chemically pure cotton and it is used in making cloths, carpets, pharmaceutical lint or porous thick paper etc.
Polyester: Firstly it was developed and composed in UK. To synthesise Polyester two hydroxyle (-OH) groups carbonous compound chemically react with two carboxyle (- COOH) groups and ester is formed. Also since in this fibre there are so many ester groups thus it is called polyester. It is used in the form of cloths, in making house pipes of fire extinguishers.
Carbon fibres: Carbon fibres are made from long chains of carbon atoms and the incident of corrosion doesn't take place. When the synthetic fibres are heated in the absence of oxygen then fibres start to decompose and carbon fibres are formed. Carbon fibres are used in making parts of space vehicles and sports items.