The system of urban government was constitutionalised through the 74th constitutional amendment act of 1992. This act gave the constitutional status to the municipalities in India. The act aims at the revitalizing and strengthening the urban governments so that they can function effectively as units of local government.
Twelfth Schedule was added by the 74th Amendment Act of 1992.Twelfth Schedule of the Indian constitution contains the powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities. This schedule has 18 items.
In this article we are publishing the items within the purview of the Municipalities.
List of 18 items covered under the Twelfth Schedule of the Indian Constitution are as follows;
1. Regulation of land use and construction of land buildings.
2. Urban planning including the town planning.
3. Planning for economic and social development
4. Urban poverty alleviation
5. Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes
6. Fire services
7. Public health sanitation, conservancy and solid waste management
8. Slum improvement and up-gradation
9. Safeguarding the interests of the weaker sections of society, including the physically handicapped and mentally unsound
10. Urban forestry, protection of environment and promotion of ecological aspects
11. Construction of roads and bridges
12. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens and playgrounds
13. Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects
14. Burials and burials grounds, cremation and cremation grounds and electric crematoriums
15. Cattle ponds, prevention of cruelty to animals
16. Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries
17. Public amenities including street lighting, parking spaces, bus stops and public conveniences
18. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths
The municipalities were established for the administration of the towns and smaller cities. There are many other names of the municipalities like; municipal council, municipal committee, municipal board, city municipality and others.
The above mentioned list of items covered under the purview of municipalities is very crucial for increasing the welfare of the local peoples.