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List of official languages specified in the Constitution of India

Mar 29, 2018 15:41 IST
    Official Languages of India

    Part XVII of the Indian constitution deals with the official languages in articles 343 to 351.The Constitution does not specify the official language of different states. At present (2018), the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution specifies 22 languages (originally 14 languages).

    List of all the 22 languages specified in the constitution is as follows;


       Spoken in the States  

     1. Assamese

     Assam, Arunachal Pradesh

     2. Benga

     West Bengal, Assam and Tripura, Andaman islands and Bangladesh

     3. Gujarati

     Gujarat, Daman and Diu

     4. Hindi

     Almost every part of the country including North-Central India

     5. Kannada


     6. Kashmiri


     7. Konkani

     It is the official language of Goa but spoken in Southern Maharashtra, North Karnataka, Kerala also.

     8. Malayalam

     Southwestern Kerala, Lakshadweep, Karnataka and Tamil  Nadu

     9. Manipuri

     Manipur, Assam, Mizoram, Tripura, Bangladesh and Myanmar

     10. Marathi

     In addition to Maharashtra, it is spoken in Goa, Karnataka, Gujarat, Daman and Diu and Dadar and Nagar Haveli.

     11. Nepali

     It is the national language of Nepal. It is also spoken in Sikkim, West Bengal, North-eastern states, Bhutan, Tibet and Myanmar.

     12. Odia

     It is mainly spoken in Odisha. It is the official language of the Odisha state.

     13. Punjabi

     It is principle language of Punjab but spoken in Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Pakistan, USA, Canada and Australia also.

     14. Sanskrit

     At present; this language is not spoken in almost any part of India. But it is still spoken in Mattur (Mathur) village of Karnataka state.

     15. Sindhi

     This language is mainly spoken in Gujarat and Sindh province of Pakistan.

     16. Tamil

     This is the official language of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. It is spoken in Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Mauritius, Vietnam also.


     It is an additional official language of Jammu & Kashmir, Telangana, Delhi, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh. There are 4.81 crores Urdu speakers in India, 1.07 crores in Pakistan, 6.5 lacs in Bangladesh and 4 lacs in Britain.

     18. Telugu

     It is principle language of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states. Apart from these states; it is spoken in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Odisha, Puducherry and Chhattisgarh also.

     19. Bodo

     Bodo or Baro is a Tibetan-Burmese language spoken by Bodo people living in northeast, Nepal and Bangladesh.

     20. Dogri

     Dogri language is spoken in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Dogri is the dialect of Punjabi.

     21. Maithili

     Maithili language is spoken in the northern region of Bihar and Valley of Nepal.

     22. Santali

    It is spoken in Assam, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Tripura and Bengal. It is spoken in Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan also.

    In the end; it is worth to mention that the Sindhi language was added in the 8th schedule by the 21st Amendment Act of 1967; Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were added by the 71st Amendment Act of 1992; and Bodo, Dongri, Maithili and Santhali were added by the 92nd Amendment Act of 2003. In all the 22 official languages the Hindi language is spoken by most of the Indians.

    List of subjects covered in the 11th Schedule of the Indian Constitution

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