Natural vegetation means the plants that have not been grown by humans. It doesn’t need help from humans and gets whatever it needs from its natural environment. There is a close relationship between height of land and the character of vegetations. With the change in height, the climate changes and that changes natural vegetation. The growth of vegetation depends on temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors like slope and thickness of soil. It is categorized into three broad categories: Forest, grassland and shrubs.
Tropical Evergreen Forests
It is also called tropical rainforests and occurs in the regions near the equator and close to the tropics. These regions are hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year. These forests are called evergreen because they do not shed their leaves. Hardwood trees like rosewood, ebony, and mahogany are common here. The tropical evergreen forest in Brazil is so enormous that it is like the lungs of the earth. Its distribution in India are- North-Eastern India, Western Slopes of the Western Ghats, Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
Tropical Deciduous Forests
They are the monsoon forests found in the large part of India- Eastern Slopes of the Western Ghats, the Tarai regions of the Himalayas, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Madhya Pradesh. Trees shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water. Sal, teak, neem and shisham are hardwood trees found in this forest. Tigers, lions, elephants, langoors and monkeys are the common animals of these regions.
Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests
The vegetation is found in those areas where the annual rainfall is between 50 and 100 cm. It is found in Eastern Rajasthan, Northern Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, South-Western Uttar Pradesh, South Punjab, Haryana and the rain-shadow area of the Western Ghats.
Desert and Semi- Arid Vegetation
This kind of vegetation is found in the areas having less than 50 cm rainfall. Here the trees are in the forms of small shrubs. Generally their maximum height is up to 6 cm. The trees have deeps roots, and thick and thorny leaves. It is found in Western Rajasthan, Northern Gujarat, and the rain shadow region of the Western Ghats.
This is found in the sea-coast and the lower deltaic regions. In these areas, the saline water spreads because of high tide. Here, the soil is marshy. The Ganga- Brahmaputra delta, deltaic regions of the rivers Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, Kaveri etc, and some parts of the eastern and western coast comes under this vegetation.
Moist Sub-tropical Montane Vegetation
This vegetation is found at the heights 1070-1500 m in the Peninsular India. This Vegetation is evergreen. The tree woods are almost soft. It is found in the area like- the Western Ghats, the Eastern Ghats, the Nilgiri, the Cardamom hills and the Annamalai hills.
Moist Temperate Montane Vegetation
This vegetation is found at the heights of 1500 m. It is found mostly in the Peninsular India. This forest is not very dense. There are shrubs on the surface. It is found in the hills of Annamalai, Nilgiri and Palni. The main trees of this forest are- Magnolia, Eucalyptus, and Elm.
The Himalayan Vegetation
A wide range of species is found in the mountains according to the variation in height. With increase in height, the temperature falls. At a height between 1500metres and 2500 metres most of the trees are conical in shape. Chir, Pine and Deodar are important coniferous trees found in these forests.
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