Nobel Prize 2009
"who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed" Romanian-born German writer Muller was awarded the Literature Nobel. Muller is an internationally wellknown author. Her works have been translated into more than 20 languages. She is famous for her works depicting the effects of violence, cruelty and terror, usually in the setting of Communist Romania.
Charles K. Kao
1/2 of the prize"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"
Chinese-born American Kao is widely regarded as the ‘Father of Fiber Optics’.
Willard S. Boyle & George E. Smith
1/4 of the prize (each)"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor"
Boyle and Smith jointly invented the charge-coupled device (CCD) in 1969.
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz & Ada E. Yonath
1/3 of the prize (each)"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"
Indian-born Ramakrishnan shared the prize with AmericanSteitz and Israeli Yonath for having showed what the ribosome looks like and how it functions at the atomic level. All three have used a method called X-ray crystallography to map the position for each and every one of the hundreds of thousands of atoms that make up the ribosome.
Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider & Jack W. Szostak
1/3 of the prize (each)"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"
Australian-born Blackburn shared prize with Greider and Szostak for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer.
Elinor Ostrom & Oliver E. Williamson
1/2 of the prize (each)“for their work on the organisation of cooperation in economic governance in”Ostrom became the first woman to win this prize. She was awarded for her analysis of economic governance especially relating to the anagement of common property or property under common control. While Williamson was chosen for his work which examines why large corporations tend to arise and why they do not based on the cost and complexity of transactions.
"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples"
President of the United States Barack Obama was given the Peace Nobel for his efforts to support international bodies and promote nuclear disarmament.