Oil and Gas Pipelines are the most convenient and efficient mode of transporting liquids and gases over long distances. Even solids can also be transported by pipelines after converting them into slurry. Oil India Limited (OIL) under the administrative set up of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas is engaged in the exploration, production and transportation of crude oil and natural gas. It was incorporated in 1959 as a company.
Asia’s first cross country pipeline covering a distance of 1,157 km was constructed by OIL from Naharkatiya oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar. It was further extended up to Kanpur in 1966. Another extensive network of pipelines has been constructed in the western region of India of which Ankleshwar-Koyali, Mumbai High- Koyali and Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur (HVJ) are most important. Recently, a 1256 km long pipeline connecting Salaya (Gujarat) with Mathura (U.P.) has been constructed. It supplies crude oil from Gujarat to Punjab (Jalandhar) via Mathura. OIL is in the process of constructing of 660 km long pipeline from Numaligarh to Siliguri.
Oil Pipelines in India
• Noonmati-Siliguri: Pipeline to transport petroleum products from Noonmati to Siliguri. Lakwa- Rudrasagar-Barauni Pipeline, completed in 1968 to transport crude-oil from Lakwa and Rudrasagar (Sibsagar District, Assam) to Barauni Oil Refinery (Bihar).
• Barauni-Haldia Pipeline: This pipeline was laid down in 1966 to carry refined petroleum products to Haldia port and bring back imported crude-oil to Barauni refinery.
• Barauni-Kanpur Pipeline: This pipeline was completed in 1966 to transport refined petro-leum products to Kanpur city.
• Noonmati-Bongaigaon Pipeline: This pipeline was constructed to transport crude-oil to Bongaigaon petro-chemical complex.
• Haldia-Maurigram-Rajbandh Pipeline: This pipeline was completed in 1998.
• Pipelines of Bombay-High Mumbai-Ankleshwar-Koyali Pipeline: This pipe-line connects the oilfields of Bombay High and Gujarat with the Koyali refinery of Gujarat. The city of Mumbai has been connected with a pipe line of 210 km length double pipeline to Bombay High to transport crude oil and natural gas. The Ankleshwar-Koyali pipeline was completed in 1965 to transport crude oil to Koyali refinery.
• The Salaya-Koyali-Mathura Pipeline: This pipeline, 1075 km in length was laid down from Salaya (Gulf of Kachchh) to Koyali and Mathura via Viramgram to supply crude oil to the Mathura refinery. From Mathura, it has been extended to the oil-refinery at Panipat (Haryana) and Jalandhar in Punjab. It has an offshore terminal and the Sayala-Koyali sector of the pipeline was completed in 1978, while the Viramgram-Mathura sector was completed in 1981.
• The Mathura-Delhi-Ambala-Jalandhar Pipeline: This 513 km long pipeline was constructed to transport refinery products of Mathura to the main cities of north and north-west India.
• Pipelines of Gujarat: In Gujarat, there are a number of short distance pipelines to transport crude-oil and natural gas to the refineries and the refined products to the market. These include the Kalol-Sabarmati Crude Pipeline, the Nwagam-Kalol-Koyali Pipeline, the Cambay-Dhuravan Gas Pipeline, the Ankleshwar-Uttran Gas Pipeline, the Ankleshwar-Vadodara Gas Pipeline, and the Koyali-Ahmadabad products Pipeline.
• Mumbai Pipelines: From Mumbai, pipelines have been laid up to Pune and Manmad to distribute petroleum products.
• The Haldia-Kolkata Pipeline: Through this pipeline, the Haldia products are sent to Kolkata and neighbouring urban places.
• The Hajira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) Gas Pipeline: Having a length of 1750 km, this is the longest pipeline of India. Crosses 75 big and small rivers and 29 railway crossings. It was established by the Gas Authority of India. It connects Kawas (Gujarat), Anta (Rajasthan), Bijaipur (M.P.) and Jagdishpur (U.P.) and Auraiya (U.P.). It provides gas to the fertiliser plants at Bijaipur, Sawai Madhopur, Jagdishpur, Shahjahanpur, Aonla, and Babrala. Each one of these fertiliser plants has the capacity to produce about 1400 tonnes of ammonia per day.
• The Kandla-Bhatinda Pipeline: This pipeline transports imported crude-oil from the Kandla seaport to the Bhatinda refinery.