Organ system is a group of organs that work with one another in order to perform a particular task or set of tasks. Various organ systems of the Human Body are Digestive System, Circulatory System, Endocrine system, Excretory System, Integumentary System, Nervous System, Respiratory System, Skeletal System and Muscular System.
These organs have specific functions but cannot function independently of one another. They are interactive in the Human Body and depend on others to carry out their functions like regulating the production of hormones in the body, body protection and movement, regulating body heat etc.
Systems of Human Body:
1. Digestive System:
The Human Digestive system is a complex process that consists of breaking down large organic masses into smaller particles that the body use as a fuel. The breakdown of the nutrients requires the coordination of several enzymes secreted from specialises cells within the mouth, stomach, intestines and liver. The various organs of the Human Digestive System in sequence are: Mouth, Oesophagus (Food Pipe), Stomach, Small Intestine and Large Intestine. The glands associated with the Human Digestive System are: Salivary Glands, Liver and Pancreas.
Enzymes play a crucial role in the digestion process and chemical digestion begins in mouth and ends in the small intestine. In Large intestine no chemical digestion takes place. Bacteria here are the producers of vitamin B and K.
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2. Respiratory System:
The process of releasing energy from food is called respiration. It involves taking in oxygen into the cells, using it for releasing energy by burning food, and then eliminating the waste products carbon dioxide and water from the body.
Food + Oxygen -------> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
The process of respiration of releasing energy takes place inside the cells of the body. Also, respiration is essential for life because it provides energy for carrying out all the process which is necessary to keep the organisms alive.
Whereas the act of breathing includes: inhaling and exhaling air in the body; the absorption of oxygen from the air in order to produce energy; the discharge of carbon dioxide, which is the by product of the process.
The normal respiratory rate for adults and children over the age of 12 usually range from 14 to 18 breaths per minute.
Inhalation: Drawing the air inwards is the result of increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity.
Exhalation: is the result of the decrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity.
Types of Respiration:
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3. Human Circulatory System:
The main transport system in the human beings is the ‘Blood Circulatory System’. The Circulatory System is also known as Double Circulatory System because it is made up of two interweaving loops and blood passes through the heart twice. The heart is at the centre of this system and is divided into two halves, the right and the left.
In this system the blood carries oxygen, digested food and other chemicals like hormones and enzymes to all the parts of the body. It also takes away the waste products or excretory products like carbon dioxide and urea which are produced in the liver cells.
The Human Blood Circulatory System consists of the heart (the organs which pumps and receives the blood) and the blood vessels or tubes through which the blood flows in the body. The blood flows through three types of blood vessels:
(ii) Veins and
The blood vessels of the circulatory system are present in each and every part of the human body due to which the blood reaches all the parts of the body.
4. Control and Coordination System
The control and coordination in higher animals called vertebrates (including human beings) takes place through nervous system as well as hormonal system called endocrine system.
A system made up of nerve cells is called Nervous System and its function is to coordinate the activities of our body. Therefore, it helps our body to work together. Nervous System is made up of special cells called neurons which is the largest cell in the body. The main organs of the nervous system are : Brain, Spinal Cord and Nerves. The brain and spinal cord are connected to all the sense organs and other parts of our body by millions of nerves.
The Human brain
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On the other hand a group of endocrine glands which produces various hormones is called Endocrine System. With the nervous system, the endocrine system also helps in coordinating the activities of our body. The Endocrine glands present in our body are: Pineal gland, Hypothalamus gland, Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid glands, Thymus, Pancreas, Adrenal glands, Testes (only in males) and Ovaries (only in females).
The hormones produced by endocrine glands act as messengers between the nervous system and the organs of our body.
For more Study on Various Glands and Hormones in Human Body
5. Excretory System:
In Human beings, excretion is carried out by an organ system known as the urinary system or the excretory system. It consists of the following parts: Two bean-shaped kidneys, located below the diaphragm in the abdomen and towards the back, two excretory tubes or ureters one from each kidney, one urinary bladder, ureters open into it and a muscular tube called urethra arises from the bladder. The urinary opening is at the end of the urethra. Also, filtration and reabsorption are two important process of excretion. On the other hand kidneys not only excrete nitrogenous wastes but also regulate the water content of the body (osmoregulation) and keep the normal mineral balance in the blood. A nephron is the structural and functional unit of Kidney.
The function of kidney is to remove the poisonous substance urea, other waste salts and excess water from the blood and excrete them in the form of a yellowish liquid urine.
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6. Reproductive System
The production of new organisms from the existing organisms of the same species is known as Reproduction. It is essential for the survival of a species on this earth. Reproduction gives rise to more organisms with the same basic characteristics as their parents. There are two main methods of reproduction in living organisms:
(a) Asexual Reproduction
(b) Sexual Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction: The production of a new organism from a single parent without the involvement of sex cells or gametes. Some examples of asexual reproduction is: binary fission in Amoeba, budding in Hydra, spore formation in Rhizopus fungus, regeneration in Planaria (flarworm), fragmentation in Spirogyra and vegetative propagation in flowering plants (like rose plant).
Binary fission of Amoeba
For more study on Asexual Reproduction in Plants
Sexual Reproduction: The production of new organism from two parents by making use of their sex cells or gametes. The two parents involved in sexual reproduction are male and female.
Sexual reproduction in human beings
7. Skeletal System:
Skeletal System is the system of bones, associated cartilages and joints of human body. The adult human body has 206 bones. In addition to bones, the skeleton also consists of cartilage and ligaments.
Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue, made of tough protein fibres, that provides a smooth surface for the movement of bones at joints. And a ligament is a band of fibrous connective tissue that holds bones together and keeps them in place. Whereas Joints are an important components of human skeleton because they make the human skeleton mobile. A joint occurs between “two or more bones”, “bone and cartilage” and “cartilage and cartilage”.