Petroleum: Complex mixture of Hydrocarbon and Paraffin
Petroleum is a type of crude oil and a highly flammable mixture. It is a mixture of hydrocarbons such as rock strata. Mostly petroleum is a fossil fuel, formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. It is also known as “rock oil” or “black gold” (because of its importance in today’s world).
Facts on Petroleum
- Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and paraffins. It is widely used as lubricant oil.
- Petroleum is obtained by drilling through the earth and impervious (non- porous) rock above it.
- Petroleum is used in the production of ammonia as the nitrogen source in agricultural fertilizers.
- Petroleum based plastic is used in the industry such as polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Nylon. Most plastics come from olefins, which include ethylene and propylene.
- Crude petroleum (crude oil) contains about 80 percent carbon compounds, 11 percent hydrogen, and 1 to 2 percent of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur.
- Mineral oil and petrolatum are petroleum by products used in creams and topical pharmaceuticals.
- Petroleum distillates products such as benzene, toluene, xylem for products that include dyes, synthetic detergents, and fabrics.
- Petroleum oil is the mostly used product which is an intermediate form of the gases which are extracted from the fossils. It is highly inflammable. The storage of this fuel is done after refining in the big containers beneath the water.
Extraction and Refining of Petroleum
Crude oil which is naturally found is an impure form is further extracted and refined for industrial uses.
- Oil Refinery: A petroleum plant where the crude oil is converted into high-octane motor fuel called gasoline. This is further refined to be used as diesel oil, LPG, kerosene oil, lubricant oil and petroleum coke etc.
- Flare Gas: Flared Gas at oil production reigned in refineries is gas burnt at the sites. Its use is to act as a safety device to protect vessels or pipes from over pressuring or due to insufficient capacity in the domestic market to absorb Petroleum Products are any oil based products which can be obtained by distillation and are normally used outside the refining industry. The exceptions to this are those finished products which are classified as refinery feed stocks.
- Refinery feedstock: It is a product or a combination of products derived from crude oil and destined for further processing other than blending in the refining industry. It is transformed into one or more components or finished products.
Uses of petroleum
- Industrial power
- Heating and lighting
- Petrochemical Industry
- Use of by- products
Petroleum is used as a chemical product vastly in the industry and it is the main source of energy. Since it is required in huge quantity which is not fulfilled with the natural resources, the alternative solution of this fuel is definitely required. US is doing the maximum consumption of this fuel. Around 15 million barrels are daily consumed by America which is mostly imported from Saudi Arabia. The economy of any country has major impact depending on the consumption and production of petroleum. India is able to produce 78% of petroleum consumption most of which comes from the states of Assam, Gujarat, and Bombay High and from the deltas of the rivers Godavari and Kaveri. The rest it has to import from other countries.