The Deccan sultanates were the five kingdoms which were founded in Deccan part of India following the disintegration of Bahmani Empire. These were Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Golkonda, Bidar and Berar. These sultanates were located between the Vindhya Range and Krishna River.
Ahmadnagar attacked and annexed Berar in 1574 AD. Bijapur conquered Bidar in 1619 AD. The Deccan sultanates were later vanquished by the Mughal Empire. It won Berar from Ahmadnagar in 1596 AD and then conquered Ahmadnagar wholly between 1616 AD and 1636 AD. Bijapur and Golkonda met the same fate during Aurangzeb’s 1686-1687 campaign.
A short description of each of these five Deccan Muslim sultanates has been given below:
Ahmadnagar sultanate was ruled by the Nizam Shahi dynasty. It was located in the northwestern Deccan, between the sultanates of Bijapur and Gujarat. The founder ruler of the sultanate was Malik Ahmed Shah Bahri who declared independence from Bahmani Empire on 28 May, 1490. He founded the new capital Ahmadnagar in 1494 although Junnar was the capital of the kingdom initially.
Berar was annexed during the reign of Murtaza Shah. Chand Bibi who was a regent of Bahadur had bravely defended the Ahmadnagar kingdom against the Mughal invasion.
Although Ahmadnagr was defeated after the death of Chand Bibi, other officials led by Malik Ambar continued the struggle from the new capital Paranda. Murtaza Shah II was declared as sultan in 1600. Later on, the capital was founded at a new city called Khadki.
The Ahmadnagar sultanate was finally conquered by Aurangzeb in 1636 AD, who was then Mughal viceroy of Deccan at that time.
Bijapur sultanate was ruled by the Adil Shahi dynasty from 1490 AD to 1686 AD. Its founder ruler was Ismail Adil Shah who declared independence from Bahmani Empire in 1490 AD. The sultanate was located in southwestern India. The capital of the kingdom was located in Bijapur. It conquered Bidar in 1619 AD.
Under the leadership of Shivaji, the Marathas revolted successfully against the Bijapur sultanate. The sultanate was finally annexed by Aurangzeb in 1686 AD.
The Golkonda sultanate was ruled by the Qutb Shahi dynasty. The sultanate was located in southern India. The Qutb Shahi dynasty were Shia Muslims. The founder ruler of this kingdom was Sultan Quli Qutub-ul-Mulk. The kingdom was conquered by Aurangzeb in 1687 AD.
Bidar sultanate declared its independence in 1492 AD from Bahmani Empire. Its founder ruler was Qasim Barid. The sultanate was ruled by Barid Shahi dynasty. It was the smallest of the five Deccan sultanates. It was annexed by the Bijpaur sultanate in 1619 AD.
The Berar sultanate was ruled by the Imad Shahi dynasty. It was founded by Fath-ullah Imad-ul-Mulk. It was annexed by Ahmadnagr kingdom in 1574 AD.
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