River Valley Projects of River Ganga
Multipurpose river valley projects in India were started with the basic aim of meeting the critical requirements of irrigation for agriculture, electricity for industries and flood control. The importance of the dams at that time can be inferred from the fact that dams were regarded as “the temples of modern India” by J.L Nehru. Accordingly, dam construction was given such a high priority in India’s economic plans. Tehri Project, Ramganga Project, Tanakpur Project, Gandak Project, Kosi Project, Rihand Project, Bansagar, Matatila Project, Chambal Project, Damodar Valley and Mayurakshi Project are the important river valley project link with Ganga River Basin.
• Tehri Project: It has been constructed at Tehri at the confluence of the rivers Bhilangana and Bhagirathi.
• Ramganga Project: It is constructed on the river Ramganga, tributary of Ganga.
• Tanakpur Project: It has been executed at Tanakpur (Uttarakhand) on the river Kali that flows on the Indo-Nepal border.
• Gandak Project: It is joint project of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Nepal. Hydro-electricity is produced at Suratpura (Nepal) on the river Gandak. The dam has been built at Bhaisalotan (Valmikinagar) in Bihar.
• Kosi Project: It is a joint project of Bihar and Nepal. The main objectives of this project are flood control, hydro-electricity production and irrigation. Kataiya in Nepal produced Hydro-electricity. The main canal in Bihar has been drawn out from the Hanuman Nagar Barrage.
• Rihand Project: It has been executed at Pipri (Sonebhadra district, Uttar Pradesh) on the river Rihand, a tributary of the son.
• Bansagar Project: It is joint project of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar on the son. It has been built on the son in the district of Shahdol in Madhya Pradesh.
• Matatila Project: It is joint project of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh on the river Betwa. The dam has been built in Uttar Pradesh.
• Chambal Project: It is a joint undertaking by the Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh governments. The Rana Pratap Dam at Bhata, 48 km from Kotah, was inaugurated on Feb 9, 1970. The project comprises construction of two other dams: Gandhi Sagar Dam in Madhya Pradesh and Jawahar Sagar (Kotah) Dam in Rajasthan.
• Damodar Valley: Principal object of this multipurpose scheme is to control the flowing of the Damodar which is notorious for its vagaries and destructiveness. It is designed on the lines of the Tennessee Valley Authority (T.V.A.) in U.S.A.
• Mayurakshi Project: It is joint project of undivided Bihar (Now Jharkhand) and West Bengal. A dam has been built on the river Mayurakshi at Masanjor in Dumka district of Jhakhand. It is also known as the ‘Canada Dam’.