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Sufi Movement in India: A Detailed Summary

06-OCT-2016 18:04

    The term Sufi derived from Arabic word Safa which has two distinct meaning - One who wear woollen clothes; and Symbolises purity and sacredness. The Sufi Mysticism is associated with the liberal interpretation of Quran called Tarikat. Shariat is the conservative interpretation of Quran. It is believes that Haq (God) and Khalaq (Soul) are the same.

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    The doctrine of Sufism was based on union with God which can be achieved through love of God, prayers, fasts and rituals without reference to Hindu or Muslims. It stressed that cultivation of religious experience should be based on the direct perception of God.

    List of the Great Mughal Emperors of India

    Summary on Sufi Movement in India

    Synthesises variety of ideas and practices from Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism.
    It aimed at service of mankind through spiritual self development
    Eager for Hindu-Muslim unity and cultural synthesis
    Opposed to orthodoxy preached faith and devotion to the God.
    Opposes the materialistic life but not in favour of complete renunciation.
    Organised in different orders (Silsilas)
    The Sufi orders were divided into two: Ba-shara those who followed the Islamic law; and Be-shara those who were not bound by Islamic law.

    List of Sufi order, founder and principle:

    Order

    Founder

    Principle

    Chisti

    Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti

     

    Keep aloof from royal court. Popularised music recitations called Sama (Mehboob-i-ilahi)

    Suhrawardi

    Sheikh Shihabuddin Suhrawardi

    Accepted royal Service

    Qadri

    Sheikh Nizamat Ullah

    Relies strongly upon adherence to the fundamentals of Islam.

    Naqshbandi

    Khwaja Pir Mohammad

    Orthodox Sect. Mujaddid opposed Shia, philosophy of Wahadat-ul-Shahdud , wrote ‘Red-i-Khafid’ arrested by Jhangir

    Firdausi

    Sheikh Sarfudin Yahya

    Branch of Suhrawardi

    Rashaniya (Akbar’s reign)

    Miyan Bayazid Ansari (Pir Roshan)

    Wrote the bookKhai-ul-Byan

    Mahadawi

    Mullah Mohammad Mahdi

    Opposed orthodox muslims

    Risi

    Nuruddin Noorani (Wali)

    Oposed orthodox muslims

    Qalandaria

    Abu Wali Qalander

    Wandering monks were called Darveshes

    Shattari

    Abdullah Shattari

    Claimed direct contact with God

    Term relate to the Sufism

    Sufi Word

    Meaning

    Tasawwuf

    Sufism

    Sheikh/Pir/Murshid

    Spiritual leader

    Murid

    Disciple

    Khalifah

    Successor

    Khanqah

    The Hospice (especially one kept by a monastic order)

    Sama

    Musical Recital

    Raksa

    Dance

    Fana

    Self Annihilation

    Sufism is the mystical movement against orthodox practice in Islam with an aim to adhere the direct perception of mankind to God without any mediator.

    “History of Medieval India”: A Complete Study Material

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