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Sufi Movement in India: A Detailed Summary

The term Sufi derived from Arabic word Safa which has two distinct meaning - One who wear woollen clothes; and Symbolises purity and sacredness. The Sufi Mysticism is associated with the liberal interpretation of Quran called Tarikat. Shariat is the conservative interpretation of Quran. It is believes that Haq (God) and Khalaq (Soul) are the same.
Oct 6, 2016 18:04 IST
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The term Sufi derived from Arabic word Safa which has two distinct meaning - One who wear woollen clothes; and Symbolises purity and sacredness. The Sufi Mysticism is associated with the liberal interpretation of Quran called Tarikat. Shariat is the conservative interpretation of Quran. It is believes that Haq (God) and Khalaq (Soul) are the same.

Jagranjosh

The doctrine of Sufism was based on union with God which can be achieved through love of God, prayers, fasts and rituals without reference to Hindu or Muslims. It stressed that cultivation of religious experience should be based on the direct perception of God.

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Summary on Sufi Movement in India

Synthesises variety of ideas and practices from Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism.
It aimed at service of mankind through spiritual self development
Eager for Hindu-Muslim unity and cultural synthesis
Opposed to orthodoxy preached faith and devotion to the God.
Opposes the materialistic life but not in favour of complete renunciation.
Organised in different orders (Silsilas)
The Sufi orders were divided into two: Ba-shara those who followed the Islamic law; and Be-shara those who were not bound by Islamic law.

List of Sufi order, founder and principle:

Order

Founder

Principle

Chisti

Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti

 

Keep aloof from royal court. Popularised music recitations called Sama (Mehboob-i-ilahi)

Suhrawardi

Sheikh Shihabuddin Suhrawardi

Accepted royal Service

Qadri

Sheikh Nizamat Ullah

Relies strongly upon adherence to the fundamentals of Islam.

Naqshbandi

Khwaja Pir Mohammad

Orthodox Sect. Mujaddid opposed Shia, philosophy of Wahadat-ul-Shahdud , wrote ‘Red-i-Khafid’ arrested by Jhangir

Firdausi

Sheikh Sarfudin Yahya

Branch of Suhrawardi

Rashaniya (Akbar’s reign)

Miyan Bayazid Ansari (Pir Roshan)

Wrote the bookKhai-ul-Byan

Mahadawi

Mullah Mohammad Mahdi

Opposed orthodox muslims

Risi

Nuruddin Noorani (Wali)

Oposed orthodox muslims

Qalandaria

Abu Wali Qalander

Wandering monks were called Darveshes

Shattari

Abdullah Shattari

Claimed direct contact with God

Term relate to the Sufism

Sufi Word

Meaning

Tasawwuf

Sufism

Sheikh/Pir/Murshid

Spiritual leader

Murid

Disciple

Khalifah

Successor

Khanqah

The Hospice (especially one kept by a monastic order)

Sama

Musical Recital

Raksa

Dance

Fana

Self Annihilation

Sufism is the mystical movement against orthodox practice in Islam with an aim to adhere the direct perception of mankind to God without any mediator.

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