Timeline of Babri Masjid - Ram Janmabhoomi Dispute Case
According to the Hindu Mythology, the city of Ayodhya is the birthplace of Lord Rama. The Babri Masjid-Ram Janmabhumi Disputes has become religious and political conflicts because the main issues are moving around possession of the site. The groups of Hindu organisation claim that Mosque was built after demolishing the temple and also the site to be the birthplace of the Hindu deity i.e. Rama whereas Muslim claims that the Mosque was never built after the demolition but with the help of the ruins of temples.
The history behind the Babri-Masjid Construction
When Babar came to India in 1526 at the request of Indian Governor to defeat Ibrahim Lodhi. One of his generals during the conquest of northeast India visited Ayodhya where he built Mosque (There is a debate on the construction that whether it was built on the demolished site of the temple or built after demolition) and named it Babri-Masjid to give tribute to the Babar. The Mosque was constructed with the huge campus where both the Hindus and Muslims can worship under a single umbrella which means Muslims inside the mosque and Hindus outside the mosque but inside the compound, i.e. "Mosque-Temple,”.
Here, we are giving a complete timeline of Babri Masjid-Ram Janmabhoomi Dispute Case to understand the issue, how and why the issues remain unsolved.
Timeline of Babri Masjid - Ram Janmabhoomi Dispute Case
It was the first time when an incident of communal violence was recorded during the reign of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh. People's who represented the Hindu community stated that Mosques was built after the demolition of Hindu temple.
The possession of the site led to the communal clashes. Hence, the British built a fence that separates the places of worships which means the inner court to be used by Muslims and the outer court by Hindus.
Faizabad District Court rejected the plea of Mahant Raghubir Das for the building a canopy on Ram Chabootra.
The Plight of violent controversies arises when Idol of Ram was placed inside the temple by Hindu activist and they spread the message that idols had 'miraculously' appeared inside the mosque. Muslims activist protest and both parties file civil suits and the end government proclaims the premises a disputed area and locks the gates. Jawaharlal Nehru took a firm stand on the illegal installation of the idols and insisted that Idol should be removed but the local official K. K. K. Nair (known for his Hindu nationalist connections) refused to carry out orders, claiming that it would lead to communal riots.
Gopal Singh Visharad suit filed for seeking permission for the right to worship the idols installed at 'Asthan Janmabhoomi'. The court held back the removal of idols and allowed worship.
Nirmohi Akhara emerges as a new contender and suit file for the possession of the site who claimed themselves as the custodian of the spot at which Ram was supposedly born.
Sunni Waqfs Board (central) move to court against forceful Idol installation and seeking for the possession of the mosque and adjoining land.
On the basis of Hari Shankar Dubey’s plea, a district court directed to unlock the gate for ‘darshan’ to the Hindu community. In the protest of the verdict, Muslims set up Babri Masjid Action Committee. As a result, the gate was opened for less than an hour and again remains locked.
The former VHP vice-president Deoki Nandan Agarwala suit file for the title and possession at the Lucknow bench of the Allahabad High Court.
The entire file suit related to the Babri-Masjid Disputes comes under the scanner of a Special Bench of High Court.
Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) puts foundation stone on land adjacent to the disputed mosque.
Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) activist tries to demolish the Mosques and as a result, they partially damage the mosques. The contemporary Prime Minister of India Chandra Shekhar tries to arbitrate the dispute through negotiation but failed.
This year witnesses nationwide communal riots which claimed more than 2,000 lives when the disputed mosque is razed by Hindu activist in support of VHP, Shiv Sena and BJP.
Librahan Commission (Librahan Ayodhya Commission for Inquiry) was set up to investigate the destruction of the disputed structure of Babri Masjid under retired High Court Judge M. S. Liberhan by an order of the Indian Home Union Ministry.
During this year, Allahabad High Court clubs all civil suits under the single table.
The High Court passes an order to the Archaeological Survey of India to find out if there would be evidence of temple beneath the Mosque.
The High Court under judge started the hearing to find out the real owner of Babri-Masjid Disputed Site.
The Archaeological Survey of India started excavation to find out the evidence of temple beneath the Babri-Masjid disputed land and submitted its report that there is evidence of temple on the basis of stone columns and pillars that might be a representation of Hindu, Buddhist or Jaina elements. All India Muslim Personal Law Board says it will challenge the ASI report in court.
Librahan Commission submitted its report and the report blames politician from BJP for their role in the demolition.
Lucknow bench of Allahabad High Court reserves its order and suggested all the parties to resolve the issue through a friendly discussion but unfortunately no one keen interested.
R C Tripathi filed a suit in the High Court to defer pronouncement of the verdict which was refused by the High Court.
R C Tripathi moves to Supreme Court to challenge the High Court order but the bench of Altamas Kabir and A K Patnaik refuses to hear the case then the matter was referred to another bench.
During this year, the Allahabad High Court given historic judgement that the disputed land be divided into three part: one-third part goes to Ram Lalla (Underrepresentation of Hindu Mahasabha); one-third to the Islamic Waqf Board; and the remaining third to the Nirmohi Akhara.
During this year, Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha and Sunni Waqf Board challenge the Allahabad High Court’s judgement in the Supreme Court.
Supreme Court stays with the judgement of Allahabad High Court on the splitting of the disputed land and states that the status quo remains.
The Vishwa Hindu Parishad declared nationwide to collect stones for the construction of the Ram Mandir at disputed land of Babri-Masjid. Mahant Nritya Gopal Das asserted that Government of India under Modi given green signal on the construction of the temple. The Uttar Pradesh government under Akhilesh Yadav says it will not allow the arrival of the stones in Ayodhya for the construction of the Ram Mandir because that leads to communal tension.
The Supreme Court on the basis of Babri-Masjid demolition case said the charges against Advani and other leaders cannot be dropped and the case must be revived.
The Supreme Court of India states that the Babri-Masjid demolition case is sensitive and it cannot be resolve without unification of issues. Hence, it appeals to all the stallholders of the Babri-Masjid case to find an amicable solution.
The Supreme Court of India reinstates the conspiracy case against politicians like L K Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi and Uma Bharti. The apex court also orders Allahabad Court’s bench of Lucknow to complete the hearing within two years.
February 8, 2018: Supreme Court started hearing the civil appeals.
September 27, 2018: Supreme Court declined to refer the case to a five-judge Constitution bench.
October 29, 2018: SC fixes the case to be heard in the first week of January before a three-judge bench. The bench was to schedule the date of hearing.
December 24, 2018: SC schedules the hearing on January 4, 2019, in the Ram Janambhoomi-Babri Masjid case.
January 4, 2019: The SC stated that it will pass an order on January 10 for fixing the date of hearing in the case.
January 8, 2019: A five-judge bench was constituted by the Supreme Court and was headed by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi and other justices-- S A Bobde, N V Ramana, U U Lalit and D Y Chandrachud. However, Justice U U Lalit withdraws himself from the bench.
January 25, 2019: SC reconstitutes the five-judge bench comprising Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi and Justices S A Bobde, D Y Chandrachud, Ashok Bhushan and S A Nazeer.
January 29, 2019: Central Government moves Supreme Court to seek permission to return the 67 acres area around the disputed site to the original owners.
February 26, 2019: The Apex Court favours mediation.
March 8, 2019: The Supreme Court refers the dispute to the mediation panel, headed by former SC Judge FM I Kallifulla.
April 9, 2019: Nirmohi Akhara opposes Centre's plea to return acquired land to the original owners in the Supreme Court.
March 9, 2019: The mediation panel submits the interim report to the Apex Court.
May 10, 2019: The Apex Court extends the time till August 15, 2019, to the mediation panel to complete its report.
July 11, 2019: Supreme Court seeks the progress on the report by the mediation panel.
August 1, 2019: Mediation panel submits its report in the sealed envelope to the Supreme Court.
August 2, 2019: Day to day hearing was to be conducted from August 6, 2019.
October 4, 2019: Supreme Court directs the UP govt to provide security to state Waqf Board Chairperson. It further stated that it will pass the judgement over the disputed land by November 17, 2019.
October 16, 2019: Final hearing in the Supreme Court ends. The bench reserved the final judgment.
November 9, 2019: The Supreme Court delivered a landmark judgement in the disputed case and granted 2.77 acres of disputed land in Ayodhya to deity Ram Lalla, the possession to be with the Central Government receiver. It also directed Central and the UP Government to allot 5-acre land to the Muslims at a prominent place for building a mosque.
December 12, 2019: The Apex Court dismissed all the petitions to review its verdict over the disputed land.