Urbanisation in India
The term urban contemplate “engines of inclusive economic growth”. With the massive support from Industrialisation, the number of urban centres started growing day by day. Enlargement of urban centres and emergence of new towns have played a significant role in the growth of urban population and urbanisation in the country. But the growth rate of urbanisation has slowed down during last two decades Census of India classifies urban centres into six classes. Centre with population of more than one lakh is called a city or class I town. Cities accommodating population size between one to five million are called metropolitan cities and more than five million are mega cities. Majority of metropolitan and mega cities are urban agglomerations.
Combinations of urban agglomeration
• A town and its adjoining urban outgrowths,
• Two or more contiguous towns with or without their outgrowths, and
• A city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths together forming a contiguous spread. Examples of urban outgrowth are railway colonies, university campus, port area, military cantonment, etc. located within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town or city.
It is evident that more than 60 per cent of urban population in India lives in Class I towns. Out of 423 cities, 35 cities/ urban agglomerations are metropolitan cities. Six of them are mega cities with population over five million each. More than one-fifth (21.0%) of urban population lives in these mega cities. Among them, Greater Mumbai is the largest agglomeration with 16.4 million people. Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad are other mega cities in the country.
Causes of Urbanisation
There are plethora of reasons which led to the growth of urbanisation, one of the major reasons are discussed below:
• Industrialization: It is one of the major causes of urbanization due to this the employment opportunities are expanded. People have migrated to cities on account of better employment opportunities and better life.
• Social factors: Factors such as attraction of cities, better standard of living, and better educational facilities compel people to migrate to the urban centres.
• Employment opportunities: Rural centres have limited employment opportunities but urban centres give large domain of employment.
• Modernization: Urban areas are characterized by sophisticated technology better infrastructure, communication, medical facilities, etc. People feel that they can lead a comfortable life in cities and migrate to cities.
• Rural urban transformation: It is an interesting aspect that not only cities are growing in number but rural community is adopting urban culture, no longer rural communities are retaining their unique rural culture. Rural people are following the material culture of urban people.
• Spread of education: Education play an important role in transforming of societies.
Hence, we can say that urbanisation is increasing day by day in India with full support of opportunities and style of living. But, urbanisation is growing faster and faster that became barriers for balance, equitable and inclusive development. Although, people come to know about each other’s culture and they exchange their ideas, breaking the barriers which earlier used to exist between them. In reality, social structure is getting dispersed for example- Family structure which is transform from joint to nuclear.