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What is the difference between Fascism and Nazism?

The crisis of the European political system from the late nineteenth century to the end of World War I. led to the rise of two ideologies, i.e. Fascism and Nazism. In this article, we have explained the concept of the Fascism and Nazism; and also given comparison between Fascism and Nazism, which is very useful for the competitive examinations like UPSC-prelims, SSC, State Services, NDA, CDS, and Railways etc.
Mar 22, 2019 16:19 IST
    What is the difference between Fascism and Nazism?

    The crisis of the European political system from the late nineteenth century to the end of World War I. led to the rise of two ideologies, i.e. Fascism and Nazism. Both the ideologies motivated by deep-seated fears of social and political disintegration and of political revolution on the part of both ruling elites and large sectors of the middle and lower-middle classes. Both ideologies were also marked by the personality cult, use of violence and rejection of both democracy and communism.

    What is Fascism?

    Fascism was originated from the Italian word fascio (plural is fasci) meaning ‘bundle’. Politically, it means ‘Union’ or ‘League’. It is a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism). It was a far-right form of government which was characterized by extreme nationalism, racial discrimination, promotion of violence and war, gender discrimination against women, and an unapologetic hatred for socialism.

    What is Nazism?

    Nazism is a far-right ideology of Adolf Hitler’s National Socialist German Workers’ Party, especially including a totalitarian government and racial superiority. It was started 1920s and lasted till the end of the World War II in 1945. It was intense nationalism, mass appeal, and dictatorial rule, Nazism shared many elements with Italian fascism.

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    Difference between Fascism and Nazism

    Fascism

    Nazism

    It was practice in Italy.

    It was practice in Germany.

    It was started during the regime of Benito Mussolini.

    It was started during the regime of Adolf Hitler.

    It is socialism with a capitalist veneer.

    It is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but also incorporated intense emotion of antisemitism, scientific racism, and eugenics into its creed.

    It took inspiration from sources as ancient as the Spartans for their focus on national purity and their emphasis on rule by an elite minority. In other words, it substituted the particularity of nationalism and racialism—“blood and soil”—for the internationalism of both classical liberalism and Marxism.

    It subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race.

    It’s intended to worship the state. In fact, it was an extreme form of Statism.

    It elevated the party above the state. In fact, it did not venerate the state as it was only a “means (vessel) to an end”.

    It recruited thousands of ‘Black Shirts’ to break up strikes and terrorize communists at the behest of Industrialists and landlords.

    It organized armed gangs of Nazis called ‘Brownshirts’ which went on murderous spree and killed many communists and anti-Nazis.

    Both the term, i.e. Fascism and Nazism were influenced by the rise of nationalism, fear from communism, crisis of the capitalist economic system and dissatisfaction with the outcome of World War I.

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