The Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi is a Government of India institution and only of its nature in eastern India. The British established this hospital on 17th May 1918 with the name of Ranchi European Lunatic Asylum. It had then a capacity of 174 patients (92 male and 82 female). It catered to the needs of the European mental patients only and it was under the direct control and management of Government of Bihar. In 1922, it was put under the control of a Board of Trustees with various participating state governments represented in the Board and in the very same year its name was changed to European Mental Hospital.
The year 1922 is also notable for the fact that the Institute was affiliated to the University of London for the Diploma in Psychological Medicine examination. It was a unique phenomenon since the postgraduate training in Psychiatry was nonexistent in India in those days. It may be worth noting that this Institute has been the most premier centre for mental health in the country and it has many firsts to its credit. For example, to mention only a few, the first Occupational Therapy Department in 1922, ECT in 1943, psychosurgery and neurosurgery in 1947, clinical psychology and Electroencephalography (EEG) departments in 1948, a full fledged neuropathology section in 1952, the first use of Lithium in 1952 and chlorpromazine in 1953. A very modern radiology department with facility for sophisticated cerebral angiography, pneumoencephalography, air ventriculography, myelography etc. was established in 1954. Few other landmarks are starting a child guidance clinic in 1950, rural mental health clinic at Mander in 1967, rehabilitation centre and sheltered workshop in 1967, and industrial psychiatry unit at HEC, Ranchi in 1973. It may also be noted that the Indian Psychiatric Society was established in 1948 because of the efforts of this Institute and it is registered in Patna. The first draft of the Bill that subsequently became the Mental Health Act of India (1987) was written at C.I.P, Ranchi in 1949 by Dr. R.B. Davis, the then Medical Superintendent, Dr. S.A. Hasib, from Indian Mental Hospital, Ranchi and Dr. J. Roy, from Mental Hospital, Gwaliar. The latter two too had worked at C.I.P., Ranchi at one time or other.
Kanke, Ranchi - 834006, Jharkhand