In order to enhance your vocabulary for upcoming bank exams, it is our sincere effort to provide articles of national and international forte. In this attempt, we are bringing to you a passage from ‘The Times of India’ (dated January 3rd, 2017) and the difficult words from it. The said words are highlighted for you so that you can identify and understand how they are applied in a sentence. These words have been explained at the end of the passage with synonyms and antonyms and its usage as well. Good luck for your preparation.
Article: I spent time handling Ratan Tata's demands: Mistry
As chairman of Tata Sons, Cyrus Mistry says over time his role revolved around handling the "demands and views" of Ratan Tata on a "full time basis" rather than running the $108-billion Tata conglomerate.
Mistry, in a reply to the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT), presented copies of emails, minutes of board meetings and other documents as evidence to back allegations about interference by Ratan Tata and other Tata Trusts members, especially Noshir Soonawala and R Venkataramanan, in the running of the Tata Group. Tata Trusts holds 66% in the group's parent company.
The former Tata Sons chairman said it was not only him, but even other senior officials of various group companies had to respond to "queries and interventions" from Ratan Tata. "While this was disruptive and intrusive, with (Ratan Tata) refusing to truly retire", Ratan Tata would "also directly engage with employees and executives of various companies in the Tata Group undermining the authority of not just the executive chairman of the Tata Group but also the board of directors of (Tata Sons) and indeed the boards of directors of various Tata Group companies".
Mistry's office declined to comment, when contacted by TOI. Mistry filed his reply with NCLT on December 29.
Mistry said such interference created "an environment of ambiguity" and "a tyrannical breakdown" of corporate governance rules. Mistry's affidavit stated that "what began with suggestions in 2013 gave way to assertion of rights under the Articles of Association (AoA) and eventually demands for information on anything and everything that Ratan Tata and Soonawala thought fit to ask".
The AoA that Mistry refers to were changed after he was appointed Tata Sons chairman in 2012. It empowered a majority of Tata Trusts-nominated directors to veto any decision that Tata Sons board would want to take.
1. Conglomerate (noun/adjective): is a company that owns several smaller businesses whose products and services are quite different or it is also known as a mixture of something.
Synonym: Cartel, syndicate, blended, melded
Antonym: Similar, separate, unvaried, individual
Sentence: His conglomerate also undertakes several CSR initiatives.
2. Allegations (noun): refers to a statement, made without giving proof, that anyone has done something wrong or illegal.
Synonym: Accusation, plea, affirmation, deposition
Antonym: Denial, exculpation, cancellation, defense
Sentence: Do you have any legitimate evidence to prove these allegations.
3. Intervention (noun): is something that comes between two things that change the course of action.
Synonym: Interference, mediation, arbitration, interposition
Antonym: Noninterference, pique, exhortation, provocation
Sentence: China should intervene in Pak’s nuclear treaty, instead of providing them with more nuclear weapons.
4. Disruptive (adjective): is to cause trouble or something which is innovative.
Synonym: Disturbing, rowdy, off-base, upsetting
Antonym: Calming, disciplined, soothing, well-behaved
Sentence: The disruptive powers of anti-social elements has created nuisance in the locality.
5. Intrusive (adjective): is affecting someone in a way that annoys them and makes them feel uncomfortable.
Synonym: Invasive, nosy, forward, presumptuous
Antonym: Bulging, jutting, obtrusive, extrusive
Sentence: Everyone at home got fed up and tired of their intrusive guest.
6. Undermining (verb): is to make someone less confident, less powerful or to make something weaker (often).
Synonym: Wrecking, destructive, subversion, vandalism
Antonym: Bolstering, boosting, confirming, support
Sentence: He should not undermine his ability to sing soulfully.
7. Ambiguity (noun): is the state of uncertainty of meaning.
Synonym: Vagueness, anagram, enigma, equivocation
Antonym: Clarity, lucidity, explicitness, definiteness
Sentence: Have you observed a certain sense of ambiguity in his behavior.
8. Tyrannical (adjective): is using or showing or relating to the unfair and cruel use of power over other people.
Synonym: Autocratic, brutal, repressive, ruthless
Antonym: Compassionate, democratic, sympathetic, considerate
Sentence: Hitler’s tyrannical nature has made him one of the biggest dictator known in the history of the world.
9. Affidavit (noun): is a written legal statement.
Synonym: Oath, testimony, affirmation, sworn statement
Sentence: The statements filed in his affidavit are contradictory to what has been presented in the court.
10. Assertion (noun): is a positive statement or declaration, often without support or reason.
Synonym: Affirmation, allegation, avowal, vindication
Antonym: Desertion, denial, rejection, quiet
Sentence: His hollow voice and uncharacteristic body language gave the lie to his assertion.
Question (1-5): Answer the following as directed
1. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘eventually’
Solution: Option (1)
Explanation: The given word means something which is done after a long time. Among the given options, option (1) is an apt choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.
2. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘empowered’
Solution: Option (3)
Explanation: The given word refers to give power or authority to. Among the given options, option (3) is the right choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.
3. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘revolved’
Solution: Option (3)
Explanation: The given word means to turn or circle. Among the given options, option (3) is the right choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.
4. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘evidence’
Solution: Option (4)
Explanation: The given word depicts the proof or documentation. Among the given options, option (4) is the right choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.
5. Find out the words which mean the same as ‘veto’
Solution: Option (2)
Explanation: The given word means to reject something by exercising a veto power. Hence, option (2) is the right choice as the synonym of the word given in the options.