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IAS Preliminary Exam 2018: Expected Questions on Environment

Apr 5, 2018 10:10 IST
    IAS Preliminary Exam 2018: Expected Questions on Environment
    IAS Preliminary Exam 2018: Expected Questions on Environment

    The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) will conduct the Civil Services (Preliminary) Exam will be held on June 3, 2018. To clear the exam, continuous efforts to master the various components of the exam are a must. To score maximum marks, reading the subject is not sufficient; One should have enough practice.

    To cater to this need of IAS Exam aspirants, Jagran Josh is providing expected questions on environment. Answers, along with detailed explanation will help aspirants in answering further questions on the same topics.

    1. Which of the following Articles of the Indian Constitution is/are related to the protection of the environment.
    1) Article 48-A
    2) Article 51A(g)

    Select the correct code:
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. c

    Explanation:

    Article 48A [Directive Principles of State Policy] and Article 51A (g) [Fundamental Dutries] deal with the protection of the environment. They are given below.

    48A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country

    51A (g). To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures.

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    2. Which of the following protected areas is/are located south of the ‘Tropic of Cancer’?
    1) Kali Tiger Reserve
    2) Bandipur National Park
    3) Hemis National Park
    4) Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary

    Select the correct code:
    a) 1, 2 and 4 only
    b) 2, 3 and 4 only
    c) 1, 2 and 3 only
    d) All of them

    Answer. a

    Explanation:

    The Kali Tiger Reserve is a protected area and a tiger reserve. It is located in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka. Bandipur National Park was established in 1974 as a tiger reserve under the Project Tiger. It is located in Karnataka. Hemis National Park is a high altitude national park. It is located in the eastern Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir. Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary is located in northern Telangana. It was declared as a tiger reserve in 2012.

    3. Consider the following statements related to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).
    1) Both government and civil society organizations are members of the IUCN.
    2) It is one of the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network.
    3) Its headquarters is located in Swizerland.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) All of them

    Answer. d

    Explanation:

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is a membership Union uniquely composed of both government and civil society organisations. It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.
    Created in 1948, IUCN has evolved into the world’s largest and most diverse environmental network. It harnesses the experience, resources and reach of its 1,300 Member organisations and the input of some 10,000 experts.

    IUCN is the global authority on the status of the natural world and the measures needed to safeguard it. Our experts are organised into six commissions dedicated to species survival, environmental law, protected areas, social and economic policy, ecosystem management, and education and communication.

    The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Red Data List) is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.

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    4. Which of the following were identified by the Union Government for the species recovery programme?
    1) Hangul
    2) Snow Leopard
    3) Vulture
    4) Lion
    5) Wild Buffalo

    Select the correct code:
    a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
    b) 2, 3, 4 and 5 only
    c) 3, 4 and 5 only
    d) All of them

    Answer. d

    Explanation:

    The Union Ministry of Enviornment, Forest and Climate Change has identified 17 critically endangered species under the Species Recovery programme. As part of the programme, efforts will be taken to conserve them. Some of the important species are Hangul, Snow Leopard, Vulture, Lion, Wild Buffalo, Swiftlets, Nilgiri Tahr, Sanghai Deer, Dugong, Wild buffalo and Jerdon’s Courser.

    5. Consider the following statements related to UNESCO’s Global Network of Geoparks.
    1) These are single and unified geographical areas of international significance.
    2) At present, there are 127 UNESCO Global Geoparks in 35 countries.
    3) India is home five UNESCO’s Global Network of Geoparks.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) All of them

    Answer. a

    Explanation:

    UNESCO Global Geoparks are single, unified geographical areas where sites and landscapes of international geological significance are managed with a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development.

    A UNESCO Global Geopark uses its geological heritage, in connection with all other aspects of the area’s natural and cultural heritage, to enhance awareness about key issues faced by the society. At present, there are 127 UNESCO Global Geoparks in 35 countries. There is not a single UNESCO Global Network of Geopark is located in India.

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    6. Consider the following statements related to the National Air Quality Index (AQI).
    1) In October 2014, it was launched by the Union Government as an initiative under ‘Swachh Bharat’.
    2) The AQI takes into account the presence of eight pollutants in the environment.
    3) At regular intervals, the index is published by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) All of them

    Answer. d

    Explanation:

    The National Air Quality Index (AQI) was launched by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in October 2014 as an environment protection initiative under ‘Swachh Bharat’. The index acts as an effective tool for dissemination of air quality information to people.

    There are six AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe.  The proposed AQI will consider eight pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, O3, NH3, and Pb) for which short-term (up to 24-hourly averaging period) National Ambient Air Quality Standards are prescribed.

    The AQI also prompts the local authorities to take quick action to improve air quality and is aimed at attracting people's participation in the process.

    7. Consider the following statements related to Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA).
    1) Prime Minister is the chairperson of the CAMPA.
    2) The CAMPA was established as a statutory body in 2004.
    3) Funds available with CAMPA are part of Public Account.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) 3 only

    Answer. d

    Explanation:

    Compensatory Afforestation (CA) refers to afforestation and regeneration activities carried out as a way of compensating for forest land diverted to non-forest purposes. The Supreme Court of India in October 2002 directed the government to create a ‘Compensatory Afforestation Fund’ in which all the monies received from the user agencies towards compensatory afforestation, additional compensatory afforestation, penal compensatory afforestation are deposited.

    Accordingly, in April 2004, the Union Government established the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

    For providing a proper institutional mechanism for compensatory afforestation matters, the Parliament gave its nod for the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill in 2016. As per the Act, the funds would be brought within broader focus of both Parliament and State Legislatures and in greater public view, by transferring them to non-lapsable interest bearing funds, to be created under public accounts of the Union of India and each State.

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    8. Consider the following statements.
    1) The National Environment Tribunal was established in 1995 as a statutory organisation.
    2) The National Green Tribunal was established in 2010 as a statutory organisation.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. b

    Explanation:

    The Parliament has passed the National Environment Tribunal Act in 1995. The Act provided for strict liability for damages arising out of any accident while handling any hazardous substance and for providing relief and compensation for damages to persons, property and the environment resulting from such accidents. However, the National Environment Tribunal could not become functional.

    The National Green Tribunal has been established under the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources, including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith.

    Consequent on coming into effect of the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010, the National Environment Tribunal Act stands repealed.

    9. Consider the following statements related to ECOMARK Scheme.
    1) It is issued by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) as a certification mark for the products which are ecologically safe.
    2) The scheme was launched in 1991.
    3) At present, the mark is issued in around 16 categories.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) All of them

    Answer. d

    Explanation:

    ECOMARK Scheme was launched by the Union Environment ministry in 1991. It is issued by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) as a certification mark for the products which are ecologically safe conforming to the standards prescribed by the BIS. It is voluntary in nature and helps in identifying eco-friendly products in the market. The mark is being issued in around 16 categories like food, medicines, chemicals, electronic goods, paper, lubricating oils, packing materials etc.

    The specific objectives of the scheme are as follows -

    • To provide an incentive for manufacturers and importers to reduce adverse environmental impact of products.

    • To reward genuine initiatives by companies to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products.

    • To assist consumers to become environmentally responsible in their daily lives by providing information to take account of environmental factors in their purchase decisions.

    • To encourage citizens to purchase products which have less harmful environmental impacts.

    • Ultimately to improve the quality of the environment and to encourage the sustainable management of resources.

    10. Which of the following environment related organisations are headed by the Prime Minister?
    1) National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)
    2) National Board of Wildlife
    3) National Water Resources Council

    Select the correct code:
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) All of them

    Answer. d

    Explanation:

    The Union Government has established the National GangaRiver Basin Authority  (NGRBA) as an empowered planning, financing, monitoring and coordinating authority for the Ganga River. It was established under the Environment (Protection) Act,1986. The Prime Minister is ex-officio Chairperson of the NGRBA.

    National Board for Wild Life is a “Statutory Organization” constituted under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. It serves as the apex body to review all wildlife-related matters and approve projects in and around national parks and sanctuaries. While it is chaired by the Prime Minister, the Union Minister for Enviornment acts its vice-chairperson.

    The National Water Resources Council was set up by the Government of India in March 1983. The Prime Minister is the Chairman, Union Minister of Water Resources is the Vice-Chairman, and Minister of State for Water Resources, concerned Union Ministers/ Ministers of State, Chief Ministers of all States & Lieutenant Governors/ Administrators of the Union Territories are the Members. It approves of the policies related to water usage in the country.

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    A UNESCO Global Geopark uses its geological heritage, in connection with all other aspects of the area’s natural and cultural heritage, to enhance awareness about key issues faced by the society. At present, there are 127 UNESCO Global Geoparks in 35 countries. There is not a single UNESCO Global Network of Geopark is located in India.

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    DISCLAIMER: JPL and its affiliates shall have no liability for any views, thoughts and comments expressed on this article.

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