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IAS Prelims Exam: Physical Geography NCERT Questions: WORLD CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

Mar 17, 2016 16:57 IST

    For the Civil Services IAS Exam Geography has vast and it covers most sections of the General Studies for the IAS Prelims Exam. The geography is scientific in its orientation and hence the IAS Aspirants having Arts background find it very difficult to prepare the geography for the IAS Prelims Exam.

    Q1. According to Koeppen the climatic group with Average temperature for all months is below 10° C
    a.    Cold Climates
    b.    Warm Temperate
    c.    Cold Snow Forest Climates
    d.     Tropical

    Answer: a

    Explanation: Cold Snow Forest Climates -The average temperature of the coldest month is minus 3° C or below; Warm Temperate -The average temperature of the coldest month of the (Mid-latitude) climates years is higher than minus 3°C but below 18°C; Tropical - Average temperature of the coldest month is 18° C or higher; Cold Climates- Average temperature for all months is below 10° C


    Q2. Tropical humid climate is hot and humid due to
    a. sun being overhead throughout the year
    b. presence of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone
    c. Warm ocean currents
    d. Both A and B

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Tropical humid climates exist between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. The sun
    being overhead throughout the year and the presence of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) make the climate hot and humid.

    Q3. Tropical humid climate is found in
    a. Eastern China
    b. Amazon Basin
    c. Northern Australia
    d. south of Central Africa

    Answer: b

    Explanation: Tropical wet climate is found near the equator. The major areas are the Amazon Basin in South America, western equatorial Africa and the islands of East Indies. Significant amount of rainfall occurs in every month of the year as thunder showers in the afternoon. Tropical monsoon climate (Am) is found over the Indian sub-continent, North Eastern part of South America and Northern Australia.

    Q4. In which of the following regions dry climate is/are found?
    1. Interior of continents
    2. Areas often surrounded by mountains
    3. Western margin of the continents, adjoining the cold current

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 1 and 2
    c.    Only 2 and 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Dry climates are characterised by very low rainfall that is not adequate for the growth of plants. At low latitudes, from 15° - 30°, they occur in the area of subtropical high where subsidence and inversion of temperature do not produce rainfall. On the western margin of the continents, adjoining the cold current, particularly over the west coast of South America, they extend more equator wards and occur on the coast land. In middle latitudes, from 35° - 60° north and south of equator, they are confined to the interior of continents where maritime-humid winds do not reach and to areas often surrounded by mountains.

    Q5. which of the following is/are commonality between Subtropical Steppe and Subtropical desert Climates?
    1. High diurnal range of temperature
    2. High annual range of temperature
    3. Highly variable rainfall

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 1 and 2
    c.    Only 2 and 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Located in the transition zone between humid and dry climates, subtropical steppe receives slightly more rainfall than the desert, adequate enough for the growth of sparse grasslands. The rainfall in both the climates is highly variable. The annual and diurnal ranges of temperature are also high.

    Q6. Which of the following is/are features of Mediterranean Climate?
    1.  It occurs in subtropical latitudes between 300 and 400.
    2. It occurs along east coast of continent.
    3.  It has rainy winter.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a.    Only 2
    b.    Only 1 and 2
    c.    Only 1 and 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Mediterranean climate occurs around Mediterranean sea, along the west coast of continents in subtropical latitudes between 30° - 40° latitudes e.g. — Central California, Central Chile, along the coast in south eastern and south western Australia. These areas come under the influence of sub tropical high in summer and westerly wind in winter. Hence, the climate is characterised by hot, dry summer and mild, rainy winter.

    Q7. With reference to Tundra climate, which of the following is/are true?
    1. In tundra region sub soil is permanently frozen
    2. Supports only low growing plants
    3. The tundra regions have very short duration of day light.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 1 and 2
    c.    Only 2 and 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: b

    Explanation: This is the region of permafrost where the sub soil is permanently frozen. The short growing season and water logging support only low growing plants. During summer, the tundra regions have very long duration of day light.

    Q8. Which of the following is/are causes of climate change?
    1. Volcanism
    2. Astronomical causes
    3. Anthropogenic causes
    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 1 and 2
    c.    Only 2 and 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: The causes for climate change are many. They can be grouped into astronomical and
    terrestrial causes. The astronomical causes are the changes in solar output associated with sunspot activities. Volcanism is considered as another cause for climate change.

    Q9. Consider the following statements
    1. Sunspots are dark and cooler patches on the sun which increase and decrease in a cyclical manner.
    2. Changes in the earth’s axial tilt have a bearing on the climate change.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: c

    Explanation: Sunspots are dark and cooler patches on the sun which increase and decrease in a cyclical manner. According to some meteorologists, when the number of sunspots increases, cooler and wetter weather and greater storminess occur. A decrease in sunspot numbers is associated with warm and drier conditions. Yet, these findings are not statistically significant. An another astronomical theory is Millankovitch oscillations, the changes in the earth’s axial tilt. All these alter the amount of insolation  received from the sun, which in turn, might have a bearing on the climate.

    Q10. Consider the following statements
    1. Volcanic eruption reduces the sun’s radiation reaching the Earth’s surface.
    2. The gases that transmit long wave radiation are called greenhouse gases.

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a. Only 1
    b. Only 2
    c. Both 1 and 2
    d. Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer: d

    Explanation: Volcanism is considered as another cause for climate change. Volcanic eruption throws
    up lots of aerosols into the atmosphere. These aerosols remain in the atmosphere for a considerable period of time reducing the sun’s radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. The gases that absorb long wave radiation are called greenhouse gases.

    Q11. Which of the following is/are not greenhouse gases?
    1. Nitric oxide (NO)
    2. Nitrous oxide (N2O)
    3.  Ozone (O3)

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 1 and 2
    c.    Only 2 and 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: a

    Explanation: The primary GHGs of concern today are carbon dioxide (CO2), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),
    Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O) and  Ozone (O3). Some other gases such as nitric oxide (NO) and Carbon monoxide (CO) easily react with GHGs and affect their concentration in the atmosphere.

    Q12. The effectiveness of Greenhouse gas molecule depends on which of the following?
    1.  Wavelength of radiation it absorbs
    2. Its lifetime in atmosphere
    3. Magnitude of increase in concentration

    Select the correct answer from the following codes
    a.    Only 1
    b.    Only 1 and 2
    c.    Only 2 and 3
    d.    1,2 and 3

    Answer: d

    Explanation: The effectiveness of any given GHG molecule will depend on the magnitude of the increase in its concentration, its life time in the atmosphere and the wavelength of radiation that it absorbs.


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