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Topicwise Ethics papers: Questions and Case Studies

Jun 30, 2017 11:03 IST

    Marks alloted in Ethics PaperEthics Paper is perhaps the most generic portion of the whole general studies syllabus. It consists of topics like happiness, emotional intelligence, aptitude towards services and even behaviour studies which can easily be answered in a general viewpoint.

    Topic-wise understanding of this paper is important for accurately answering the questions of each section as all the questions might seem similar at first. So it is essential for all IAS aspirants to view the previous year questions asked from the specific topic before initiating self-study on that topic as it gives a unidirectional perspective on the demand of the paper.

    Here, we present topic-wise segregation of questions and case studies asked from each topic in the last 4 years question ethics paper of UPSC exam.

    Topic 1- Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values - lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values

    2016

    1)Explain how ethics contributes to social and human well-being. (150 words)

    2)Analyze John Rawls's concept of social justice in the Indian contest. (150 words)

    3)Law and ethics are considered to be the two tools for controlling human conduct so as to make it conducive to civilized social existence.

    a) Discuss how they achieve this objective.

    b) Giving examples. Show how the two differ in their approaches. (150 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    You are a young, aspiring and sincere employee in a Government office working as an assistant to the director your department. Since you have joined recently, you need to learn and progress. Luckily your superior is very kind and ready to train yon fur your job. He is a very intelligent and well informed person having knowledge of various departments. In short, you respect your boss and are looking forward to learn a lot from him.

    Since you have a goad tuning with the boss, he started depending on you. One day due to ill health he invited you at his place for finishing some urgent work.
    You reached his house and before you could ring the bell you heard shouting noises. You waited for a while. After entering the house the boss greeted you and explained the work. But you were constantly disturbed by the crying of a woman. At last, you inquired with the boss but his answer did not satisfy you.

    Next day, you were compelled to inquire further in the office and found out that his behaviour is very bad at home with his wife. He also beats up his wife. His wife is not well educated and is a simple woman in comparison to her husband. You see that though your boss is a nice person in the office, he is engaged in domestic violence at home.

    In such a situation, you are left with the following options. Analyze each option with its consequences

    a) Just ignore thinking about it because it is their personal matter.

    b) Report the case to the appropriate authority.

    c) Your own innovative approach towards the situation. (250 words)

    2015

    1)What is meant by ‘environmental ethics'? Why s it important to study? Discuss any one environmental issue from the viewpoint of environmental ethics. (150 words)

    2)Differentiate between the following (200 words)

    •Law and Ethics

    •Ethical management and Management of ethics

    •Discrimination and Preferential treatment

    •Personal ethics and Professional ethics

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    A private company is known for its efficiency, transparency and employee welfare. The company though owned by a private individual has a cooperative character where employees feel a sense of ownership. The company employs nearly 700 personnel and they have voluntarily decided not to form a union.

    One day suddenly in the morning, about 40 men belonging to a political party gate-crashed into the factory demanding jobs in the factory. They threatened the management and employees, and also used foul language. The employees feel demoralized. It was clear that those people who gate-crashed wanted to be on the payroll of the company as well as continue as the volunteers/members of the party.

    The company maintains high standards in integrity and does not extend favours to civil administration that also includes law enforcement agency. Such incidents occur in public sector also.

    (a) Assume you are the CEO of the company. What would you do to diffuse the volatile situation on the date of gate-crashing with the violent mob sitting inside the company premises?

    (b) What could be the long-term solution to the issue discussed in the case?

    (c) Every solution/action that you suggest will have a positive and a negative impact on you (as CEO), the employees and the performance of the employees. Analyze the consequences of each of your suggested actions. (250 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    You are the Sarpanch of a Panchayat. There is a primary school run by the government in your area. Midday meals are provided to the children attending the school. The Headmaster has now appointed a new cook in the school to prepare the meals. However, when it is found that the cook is from Dalit community, almost half of the children belonging to higher castes are not allowed to take meals by their parents. Consequently the attendance in the school falls sharply. This could result in the possibility of discontinuation or midday meal scheme, thereafter of teaching staff and subsequent closing down the school.

    (a) Discuss some feasible strategies to overcome the conflict and to create right ambience.

    (b) What should be the responsibilities of different social segments and agencies to create positive social ambience for accepting such changes? (250 words)

    2014

    1)All human beings aspire for happiness. Do you agree? What does happiness mean to you? Explain with examples. (150 words)

    2)Which eminent personality has inspired you the most in the context of ethical conduct in life? Give the gist of his/her teachings. Giving specific examples, describe how you have been able to apply these teachings for your own ethical development. (150 words)

    3)We are witnessing increasing instances of sexual violence against women in the country. Despite existing legal provisions against it, the number of such incidences is on the rise. Suggest some innovative measures to tackle this menace. (150 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    You are a no-nonsense, honest officer. You have been transferred to a remote district to head a department that is notorious for its inefficiency and callousness. You find that the main cause of the poor state of affairs is the indiscipline of a section of employees. They do not work themselves and also disrupt the working of others. You first warned the troublemakers to mend their ways or else face disciplinary action. When the warning had little effect, you issued a show cause notice to the ringleaders. As a retaliatory measure, these troublemakers instigated a woman employee amongst them to file a complaint of sexual harassment against you with the Women's Commission. The Commission promptly seeks your explanation. The matter is also publicized in the' media to embarrass you further. Some of the options to handle this situation could be as follows:

    (i) Give your explanation to the Commission and go soft on the disciplinary action.

    (ii) Ignore the Commission and proceed firmly with the disciplinary action.

    (iii) Brief your higher-ups seek directions from them and act accordingly.

    Suggest any other possible option(s). Evaluate all of them and suggest the best course of action, giving your reasons for it. (250 words)

    2013

    1)What do you understand by 'values' and 'ethics'? In what way is it important to be ethical along with being professionally competent? (150 words)

    2)Some people feel that values keep changing with time and situation, while others strongly believe that there are certain universal and eternal human values. Give your perception in this regard with due justification. (150 words)

    3)What do you understand by the term 'voice of conscience'? How do you prepare yourself to heed to the voice of conscience? (150 words)

    4)What is meant by 'crisis of conscience'? Narrate one incident in your life when you were faced with such a crisis and how you resolved the same. (150 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    You are the Executive Director of an upcoming Infotech Company which is making a name for itself in the market.

    Mr. A, who is a star performer, is heading the marketing team. In a short period of one year, he has helped in doubling the revenues as well as creating a high brand equity for the Company so much so that you are thinking of promoting him. However you have been receiving information from many corners about his attitude towards the female colleagues; particularly his habit of making loose comments on women. In addition, he regularly sends indecent SMS's to all the team members including his female colleagues.

    One day, late in the evening, Mrs. X, who is one of Mr. A's team members, comes to you visibly disturbed. She complains against the continued misconduct of Mr. A, who has been making undesirable advances towards her and has even tried to touch her inappropriately in his cabin.

    She tenders her resignation and leaves your office.

    (a) What are the options available to you?

    (b) Evaluate each of these options and choose the option you would adopt giving reasons. (250 words)

    Topic 2- Attitude: Content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion

    2016

    1)How could social influence and persuasion contribute to the success of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan? (150 words)

    2)Our attitudes towards life, work, other people and society are generally shaped unconsciously by the family and the social surroundings in which we grow up. Some of these unconsciously acquired attitudes and values are often undesirable in the citizens of a modern democratic and egalitarian society.

    a)Discuss such undesirable values prevalent in today’s educated Indians

    b)How can such undesirable attitudes be changed and socio-ethical values considered necessary in public services be cultivated in the aspiring and serving civil servants? (150 words)

    2015

    1)Two different kinds of attitudes exhibited by public servants towards their work have been identified as the bureaucratic attitude and the democratic attitude. (150 words)

    (a) Distinguish between these two terms and write their merits and demerits.

    (b) Is it possible to balance the two to create n better administration for the faster development or our country?

    Case Study: (25 marks)

    You are recently posted as district development officer or a district. Shortly thereafter you found that there is considerable tension in the rural areas of your district on the issue or sending girls to schools.

    The elders of the village feel that many problems have come up because girls are being educated and they are stepping out of the safe environment of the household. They are or the view that the girls should be quickly married off with minimum education. The girls are also competing for jobs after education, which have traditionally remained in boys’ exclusive domain, adding to unemployment amongst male population.

    The younger generation feels that in the present era, girls should have equal opportunities for education and employment, and other means of livelihood. The entire locality is divided between the elders and the younger lot and further sub-divided between sexes in both generations. You come to know that in Panchayat or in other local bodies or even in busy crossroads, the issue is being acrimoniously debated.

    One day you are informed that an unpleasant incident has taken place. Some girls were molested, when they were en route to schools. The incident led to clashes between several groups and a law and order problem has arisen. The elders after heated discussion have taken a joint decision not to allow girls to go to school and to socially boycott all such families, which do not follow their dictate.

    (a) What steps would you take to ensure girls’ safety without disrupting their education?

    (b) How would you manage and mould patriarchy attitude of the village elders to ensure harmony in the inter-generational relations? (250 words)

    2014

    1)What factors affect the formation of a person's attitude towards social problems? In our society, contrasting attitudes are prevalent about many social problems. What contrasting attitudes do you notice about the caste system in our society? How do you explain the existence of these contrasting attitudes? (150 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    In our country, the migration of rural people to towns and cities is increasing drastically. This is causing serious problems both in the rural as well as in the urban areas. In fact, things are becoming really unmanageable. Can you analyze this problem in detail and indicate not only the socio-economic but also the emotional and attitudinal factors responsible for this problem? Also, distinctly bring out why

    (a) Educated rural youth are trying to shift to urban areas;

    (b) Landless poor people are migrating to urban slums;

    (c) Even some farmers are selling off their land and trying to settle in urban areas taking up petty jobs.

    What feasible steps can you suggest which will be effective in controlling this serious problem of our country? (250 words)

    Topic 3- Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections

    2016

    1)Why should impartiality and non-partisanship be considered as foundational values in public services, especially in the present day Scio-political context? Illustrate your answer with examples. (150 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    Suppose you are an officer in-charge of implementing a social service scheme to provide support to old and destitute women. An old and illiterate woman comes to you to avail the benefits of the scheme. However, she has no documents to show that she fulfils the eligibility criteria. But after meeting her and listening to her you feel that she certainly needs support. Your enquiries also show that she is really destitute and living in a pitiable condition. You are m a dilemma as to what to do. Putting her under the scheme without necessary documents would clearly be violation of rules. But denying her the support would be cruel and inhuman.

    (a) Can you think of a rational way to resolve this dilemma?

    (b) Give your reasons for it. (250 words)

    2015

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    One of the scientists working in the R & D laboratory of a major pharmaceutical company discovers that one of the companies’s best selling veterinary drugs. B has the potential to cure a currently incurable liver disease that in prevalent in tribal areas. However, developing a variant of the drug suitable for human beings entailed a lot of research and development having a huge expenditure to the extent of Rs. 50 crores.

    It was unlikely that the company would recover the costs as the disease was rampant only in poverty-.stricken area having very little market otherwise.
    If you were the CEO, then

    (a) Identify the various actions that you could take;

    (b) Evaluate the pros and cons of each or your actions. (250 words)

    2014

    1)"Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, but knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful." What do you understand by this statement? Explain your stand with illustrations from the modern context. (150 words)

    Topic 4- Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance

    2016

    1)Anger is a harmful negative emotion. It is injurious to both personal life and work life.

    a)Discuss how it leads to negative emotions and undesirable behaviours.

    b)How can it be managed and controlled? (150 words)

    2015

    1)How do the virtues of trustworthiness and fortitude get manifested in public service? Explain with examples. (150 words)

    2014

    1)The current society is plagued with widespread trust-deficit. What are the consequences of this situation for personal well-being and for societal well-being? What can you do at the personal level to make yourself trustworthy? (150 words)

    2013

    1)What is 'emotional intelligence' and how can it be developed in people? How does it help an individual in taking ethical decisions? (150 words)

    Topic 5- Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world

    2016

    1)Discuss Mahatma Gandhi's concept of seven sins. (150 words)

    2)“Max weber said that it is not wise to apply to pubic administration the sort of moral and ethical norms we apply to matters of personal conscience. It is important to realize that the State bureaucracy might possess it own independent bureaucratic morality.” Critically analyze this statement. (150 words)

    2015

    1)Given are two quotations of moral thinker/philosophers. For each of these, bring out what it means to you in the present context:

    (a)The weak can never forgive; forgiveness is the attribute of the strong." (150 words)

    (b) We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light." (150 words)

    2014

    1)"Human beings should always be treated as 'ends' in themselves and never as merely `means'." Explain the meaning and significance of this statement, giving its implications in the modern techno-economic society. (150 words)

    2013

    1)Given below are three quotations of great moral thinkers/philosophers. For each of these quotations, bring out what it means to you in the present context:

    (a)"There is enough on this earth for every one's need but for no one's greed.'' Mahatma Gandhi (150 words)

    (b)"Nearly all men can withstand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power".-Abraham Lincoln (150 words)

    (c)"I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who overcomes his enemies".- Aristotle (150 words)

    Topic 6- Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance

    2016

    1)What do you understand by the terms 'governance', ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’? (150 words)

    2)Discuss the Public Services Code as recommended by the 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission. (150 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    A fresh engineering graduate gets a job in a prestigious chemical industry. She likes the work. The salary is also good. However, after a few months she accidentally discovers that a highly toxic waste is being secretly discharged into a river nearby. This is causing health problems to the villagers downstream who depend on the river for their water needs. She is perturbed and mentions her concern to her colleagues who have been with the company for longer periods.

    They advise her to keep quite as anyone who mentions the topic is summarily dismissed. She cannot risk losing her job as she is the sole bread-winner for her family and has to support her ailing parents and siblings. At first, she thinks that if her seniors are keeping quiet, why she should stick out her neck. But her conscience pricks her to do something to save the river and the people who depend upon it. At heart she feels that the advice of silence given by her friends is not correct though she cannot give reasons for it. She thinks you are a wise person and seeks your advice.

    a) What arguments can you advance to show her that keeping quiet is not morally right?

    b) What course of action would you advise her to adopt and why? (250 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    Land needed for mining dams and other large-scale projects is acquired mostly from Adivasis, hill dwellers and rural communities. The displaced persons are paid monetary compensation as per the legal provisions. However, the payment is often tardy. In any case, it cannot sustain the displaced families for long. These people do not possess marketable skills to engage in some other occupation.

    They end up as Low paid migrant labourers. Moreover, their traditional ways of community living are destroyed. Thus, the benefits of development go to industries, industrialists and urban communities whereas the costs are passed on to these poor helpless people. This unjust distribution of costs and benefits is unethical

    Suppose you have been entrusted with the task of drafting a better compensation-cum-rehabilitation policy for such displaced persons, how would you approach the problem and would be the main elements of your suggested Policy? (250 words)

    Case Study: (25 marks)

    ABC Ltd. is a large transnational company having diversified business activities with a huge shareholder base. The company is continuously expanding and generating employment. The company, in its expansion and diversification programme, decides to establish a new plant at Vikaspuri, an area which is underdeveloped. The new plant is designed to use energy efficient technology that will help the company to save production cost by 20%.

    The company’s decision goes well with the Government policy of attracting investment to develop such underdeveloped regions. The Government has also announced tax holiday for five years for the companies that invest in underdeveloped areas. However, the new plant may bring chaos for the inhabitants of Vikaspuri region, which is otherwise tranquil. The new plant may result in increased cost of living, aliens migrating to the region, disturbing the social and economic order.

    The company sensing the possible protest tried to educate the people of vikaspuri region and public in general that how its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy would help overcome the likely difficulties of the residents of vikaspuri region. In spite of this the protests begin and some or the residents decided to approach the judiciary as their plea before the Government did not yield any result.

    a)Identify the issues involved in the case.

    b)What can be suggested to satisfy the company’s goal and to address the resident’s concerns? (300 words)

    2015

    1)Mere compliance with law is not enough; the public servant also has to have a well- developed sensibility to ethical issues for effective discharge of duties. Do you agree? Explain with the help of two examples, where (i) an act is ethically right but not legally and (ii) an act is legally right, but not ethically. (150 words)

    2)“Social Values are more important than economic values”. Discuss the above statement with examples in the context of inclusive growth of a nation. (150 words)

    3)At the international level, the bilateral relations between most nations are governed on the policy of promoting one’s own national interest without any regard for the interest of other nations. This leads to conflicts and tensions between the nations. How can ethical consideration help resolve such tensions? Discuss with specific examples. (150 words)

    4)Public servants are likely to confront with the issues of ‘Conflict of Interest’. What do you understand by the term “Conflict of Interest’ and how does It manifest in the decision making by public servants? If faced with the conflict of Interest situation, how would you resolve it? Explain with the help of examples. (150 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    There is a disaster-prone State having frequent landslides, forest fires, cloudbursts, flash floods and earthquakes, etc. Some of these are seasonal and often unpredictable. The magnitude of the disaster is always unanticipated. During one of the seasons, a cloudburst caused devastating floods and landslides leading to high causalities. There was major damage to infrastructure like roads, bridges and power generating units. This led to more than 100000 pilgrims, tourists and other locals trapped across different routes and locations. The people trapped in your area of responsibility included senior citizens, patients in hospitals, women and children, hikers, tourists, ruling party’s regional president along with his family, additional chief secretary of the neighbouring State and prisoners in jail.

    As civil services officer of the State, what would be the order in which you would rescue these people and why? Give justifications. (200 words)

    2014

    1)What do ethics seek to promote in human life? Why is it all the more important in public administration? (150 words)

    2)In the context of defence services, 'patriotism' demands readiness to even lay down one's life in protecting the nation. According to you, what does patriotism imply in everyday civil life? Explain with illustrations and justify your answer. (150 words)

    3)What does 'accountability' mean in the context of public service? What measures can be adopted to ensure individual and collective accountability of public servants? (150 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    Now-a-days, there is an increasing thrust on economic development all around the globe. At the same time, there is also an increasing concern about environmental degradation caused by development. Many a time, we face a direct conflict between developmental activity and environmental quality. It is neither feasible to stop or curtail the developmental process, nor it is advisable to keep degrading the environment, as it threatens our very survival.

    Discuss some feasible strategies which could be adopted to eliminate this conflict and which could lead to sustainable development. (250 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    Suppose one of your close friends, who is also aspiring for civil services, comes to you for discussing some of the issues related to ethical conduct in public service. He raises the following points:

    (i) In the present times, when unethical environment is quite prevalent, individual attempts to stick to ethical principles may cause a lot of problems in one's career. It may also cause hardship to the family members as well as risk to one's life. Why should we not be pragmatic and follow the path of least resistance, and be happy with doing whatever good we can?

    (ii) When so many people are adopting wrong means and are grossly harming the system, what difference would it make if only a small minority tries to be ethical? They are going to be rather ineffective and are bound to get frustrated.

    (iii) If we become fussy about ethical considerations, will it not hamper the economic progress of our country? After all, in the present age of high competition, we cannot afford to be left behind in the race of development.

    (iv) It is understandable that we should not get involved in grossly unethical practices, but giving and accepting small gratifications and doing small favours increases everybody's motivation. It also makes the system more efficient. What is wrong in adopting such practices?

    Critically analyze the above viewpoints. On the basis of this analysis, what will be your advice to your friend? (250 words)

    2013

    1)What do you understand by the following terms in the context of public service? (250 words) 3x5=15

    a.Integrity

    b.Perseverance

    c.Spirit of service

    d.Commitment

    e.Courage of conviction

    2)Indicate two more attributes which you consider important for public service. Justify your answer. (100 words) 10

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    You are working as an Executive Engineer in the construction cell of a Municipal Corporation and are presently in-charge of the construction of a flyover. There are two Junior Engineers under you who have the responsibility of day-to-day inspection of the site and are reporting to you, while you are finally reporting to the Chief Engineer who heads the cell. While the construction is heading towards the completion, the Junior Engineers have been regularly reporting that all construction is taking place as per design specifications.

    However, in one of your surprise inspections, you have noticed some serious deviations and lacunae which, in your opinion, are likely to affect the safety of the flyover. Rectification of these lacunae at this stage would require a substantial amount of demolition and rework which will cause a tangible loss to the contractor and will also delay completion.
    There is a lot of public pressure on the Corporation to get this construction completed because of heavy traffic congestion in the area. When you brought this matter to the notice of the Chief Engineer, he advised you that in his opinion it is not a very serious lapse and may be ignored. He advised for further expediting the project for completion in time. However, you are convinced that this was a serious matter which might affect public safety and should not be left unaddressed.

    What will you do in such a situation? Some of the options are given below. Evaluate the merits and demerits of each of these options and finally suggest what course of action you would like to take, giving reasons. (250 words)

    (i) Follow the advice of the Chief Engineer and go ahead.

    (ii) Make an exhaustive report of the situation bringing out all facts and analysis along with your own viewpoints stated clearly and seek for written orders from the Chief Engineer.

    (iii) Call for explanation from the Junior Engineers and issue orders to the contractor for necessary correction within targeted time.

    (iv) Highlight the issue so that it reaches superiors above the Chief Engineer.

    (v) Considering the rigid attitude of the Chief Engineer, seek transfer from the project or report sick.

    Case Study: (25 marks)

    Sivakasi in Tamil Nadu is known for its manufacturing clusters on firecrackers and matches. The local economy of the area is largely dependent on firecrackers industry. It has led to tangible economic development and improved standard of living in the area.

    So far as child labour norms for hazardous industries like firecrackers industry are concerned, International Labour Organization (ILO) has set the minimum age as 18 years. In India however this age is 14 years.

    The units in industrial clusters of firecrackers can be classified into registered and non-registered entities. One typical unit is household-based work. Though the law is clear on the use of child labour employment norms in registered/non-registered units, it does not include household-based works. Household-based work means children working under the supervision of their parents/relatives. To evade child labour norms, several units project themselves as household-based works but employ children from outside. Needless to say that employing children saves the costs for these units leading to higher profits to the owners.

    On your visit to one of the units at Sivakasi the owner takes you around the unit which has about 10-15 children below 14 years of age. The owner tells you that in his household-based unit, the children are all his relatives. You notice that several children smirk, when the owner talls you this. On deeper enquiry, you figure out that neither the owner nor the children are able to satisfactorily establish their relationship with each other.

    (a) Bring out and discuss the ethical issues involved in the above case.

    (b) What would be your reaction after your above visit? (300 words)

    Topic 8- Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen's Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

    2016

    1)“Corruption causes misuse of government treasury, administrative inefficiency and obstruction in the path of national development.” Discuss Kautilya's views. (150 words)

    Case Study: (25 marks)

    Saraswati was a successful IT professional in USA. Moved by the patriotic sense of doing something for the country she returned to India. Together with other like-minded friends, she formed an NGO to build a school for a poor rural community.

    The objective of the school was to provide the best quality modern education at nominal cost. She soon discovered that she has to seek permission from a number of Government agencies. The rules and procedures were quite confusing and cumbersome. What frustrated her most were the delays, callous attitude of officials and constant demand for bribes.

    Her experience and the experience of many others like her have deterred people from taking up social service projects. A measure of Government control over voluntary social work is necessary. But it should not be exercised in a coercive or corrupt manner.

    What measures can you suggest to ensure that due control is exercised hut well meaning, honest NGO efforts are not thwarted? (300 words)

    2015

    1)Some recent developments such as introduction of RTI Act, media and judicial activism, etc., are proving helpful in bringing about greater transparency and accountability in the functioning of the government. However, it is also being observed that at times the mechanisms are misused. Another negative effect is that the officers are now afraid to take prompt decisions. Analyze this situation in detail and suggest how this dichotomy can be resolved. Suggest how these negative impacts can be minimized. (150 words)

    2)Today we find that in spite of various measures like prescribing codes of conduct, setting up vigilance cells/commissions, RTI, active media and strengthening of legal mechanisms, corrupt practices are not coming under control. (150 words)

    (a) Evaluate the effectiveness of these measures with justifications.

    (b) Suggest more effective strategies to tackle this menace.

    Case Study: (25 marks)

    You are heading a district administration in a particular department. Your senior officer calls you from the State Headquarters and tells you that a plot in Rampur village is to have a building constructed on it for a school. A visit is scheduled during which he will visit the site along with the chief engineer and the senior architect. He wants you to check out all the papers relating to it and to ensure that the visit is properly arranged. You examine the file which relates to the period before you joined the department. The land was acquired from the local Panchayat at a nominal cost and the papers show that clearance certificates are available from the two of the three authorities who have to certify the site’s suitability.

    There is no certification by the architect available on file. You decide to visit Rampur to ensure that all is in order as stated on file. When you visit Rampur, you find that the plot under reference is part of Thakurgarh Fort and that the walls, ramparts, etc are running across it. The fort is well away from the main village; therefore a school here will be a serious inconvenience for the children. However the area near the village has potential to expand into a larger residential area. The development charges on the existing plot, at the fort, will be very high and the question of heritage site has not been addressed. Moreover, the Sarpanch, at the time of acquisition of the land, was a relative of your Predecessor. The whole transaction appears to have been done with some vested interest.

    (a) List the likely vested interests of the concerned parties.

    (b) Some of the options for action available to you are listed below. Discuss the merits and demerits or each of the options?

    (i) You can await the visit of the superior officer and let him take a decision.

    (ii) You can seek his advice in writing or on phone.

    (iii) You can consult your predecessor/colleagues, etc. and then decide what to do.

    (iv) You can find out if any alternate plot can be got in exchange and then send a comprehensive written report.

    Can you suggest any other option with proper justification? (250 words)

    2014

    1)What do you understand by 'probity' in public life? What are the difficulties in practicing it in the present times? How can these difficulties be overcome? (150 words)

    2)There is a heavy ethical responsibility on the public servants because they Occupy positions of power handle huge amounts of public funds, and their decisions have wide-ranging impact on society and environment. What steps have you taken to improve your ethical competence to handle such responsibility? (150 words)

    3)It is often said that poverty leads to corruption. However, there is no dearth of instances where affluent and powerful people indulge in corruption in a big way. What are the basic causes of corruption among people? Support your answer with examples. (150 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    Suppose you are the CEO of a company that manufactures specialized electronic equipment used by a government department. You have submitted your bid for the supply of this equipment to the department. Both the quality and cost of your offer are better than those of the competitors. Yet the concerned officer is demanding a hefty bribe for approving the tender. Getting the order is important both for you and for your company. Not getting the order would mean closing a production line. It may ay also affect your own career.

    However, as a value-conscious person, you do not want to give bribe.

    Valid arguments can be advanced both for giving the bribe and getting the order, and for refusing to pay the bribe and risking the loss of the order. What those arguments could be? Could there be any better way to get out of this dilemma? If so, outline the main elements of this third way, pointing out its merits. (250 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    Rameshwar successfully cleared the prestigious civil services examination and was excited about the opportunity that he would get through the civil services to serve the country. However, soon after joining the services, he realized that things are not as rosy as he had imagined.

    He found a number of malpractices prevailing in the department assigned to him. For example, funds under various schemes and grants were being misappropriated. The official facilities were frequently being used for personal needs by the officefs and staff. After some time, he noticed that the process of recruiting the staff was also not up to the mark. Prospective candidates were required to write an examination in which a lot of cheating was going on. Some candidates were provided external help in the examination. Rameshwar brought these incidents to the notice of his seniors. However, he was advised to keep his eyes, ears and mouth shut and ignores all these things which were taking place with the connivance of the higher-ups. Rameshwar felt highly disillusioned and uncomfortable. He comes to you seeking your advice.

    Indicate various options that you think are available in this situation. How would you help him to evaluate these options and choose the most appropriate path to be adopted? (250 words)

    2013

    1)"The good of an individual is contained in the good of all". What do you understand by this statement? How can this principle be implemented in public life? (150 words) 10

    2)It is often said that 'politics' and 'ethics' do not go together. What is your opinion in this regard? Justify your answer with illustrations. (150 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    A Public Information Officer has received an application under RTI Act. Having gathered the information, the PIO discovers that the information pertains to some of the decisions taken by him, which were found to be not altogether right. There were other employees also who party to these decisions were. Disclosure of the information is likely to lead to disciplinary action with possibility of punishment against him as well as some of his colleagues. Non-disclosure or part disclosure or camouflaged disclosure of information will result into lesser punishment or no punishment.

    The POI is otherwise an honest and conscientious person but this particular decision. On which the RTI application has been filed, turned out to be wrong. He comes to you for advice.

    The following are some suggested options. Please evaluate the merits and demerits of each of the options:

    (i) The POI could refer the matter to his superior officer and seek his advice and act strictly in accordance with the advice, even though he is not completely in agreement with the advice of the superior.

    (ii) The POI could proceed on leave and leave the matter to be dealt by his successor in office or request for transfer of the application to another PIO.

    (iii) The POI could weigh the consequences of disclosing the information truthfully, including the effect on his career, and reply in a manner that would not place him or his career in jeopardy, but at the same time a little compromise can be made on the contents of the information.

    (iv) The POI could consult his colleagues who are party to the decision and take action as per their advice.

    Also please indicate (without necessarily restricting to the above options) what you would like to advise, giving proper reasons. (250 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    You are heading a leading technical institute of the country. The institute is planning to convene an interview panel shortly under your chairmanship for selection of the post of professors. A few days before the interview, you get a call from the Personal Secretary (PS) of a senior government functionary seeking your intervention in favour of the selection of a close relative of the functionary for this post. The PS also informs you that he is aware of the long pending and urgent proposal of your institute for grant of funds for modernization, which are awaiting the functionary's approval. He assures you that he would get these proposals cleared.

    (a) What are the options available to you?

    (b) Evaluate each of these options and choose the option which you would adopt, giving reasons. (250 words)

    Case Study: (20 marks)

    As a senior officer in the Finance Ministry, you have access to some confidential and crucial information about policy decisions that the Government is about to announce. These decisions are likely to have far-reaching impact on the housing and construction industry. If the builders have access to this information beforehand, they can make huge profits. One of the builders has done a lot of quality work for the Government and is known to be close to your immediate superior, who asks you to disclose this information to the said builder.

    (a) What are the options available to you?

    (b) Evaluate each of these options and choose the option which you would adopt, giving reasons. (250 words)

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