The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) conducted the Combined Defence Services (CDS) (II) Examination 2017 on 19 November 2017. The Exam consisted of three papers – General Knowledge, English and Elementary Mathematics.
For the benefit of CDS aspirants, Jagran Josh is providing answers along with detailed explanation to the Passage Questions asked in the CDS (II) 2017 Exam. They are as given below. It is the second part in the series. For the first nine passage questions, click on the link given at the end.
Directions: After each passage, you will find some items based on the passage. First, read a passage and answer the items based on it. You are required to select your answers based on the contents of the passage and opinion of the author only.
According to the civil laws of most countries, obedience is no longer the duty of a wife, every woman has the political right to vote, but these liberties remain theoretical as long as she does not have economic freedom. A woman supported by a man is not liberated from the male. It is through gainful employment that woman has traveled most of the distance that separated her from the male, and nothing else can guarantee her liberty in practice.
I once heard a maidservant declare, while cleaning the stone floor of a hotel lobby, “I never asked anybody for anything; I succeeded all by myself.” She was as proud of her self-sufficiency as a Rockefeller, Ford or Birla.
However, the mere combination of the right to vote and a job does not mean complete liberation: working, today, is not a liberty.
A recent study of women workers in a car factory shows that they would prefer to stay in the home rather than work in the factory. The majority of women do not escape from the traditional feminine world. Their jobs at the factory do not relieve them of housekeeping burdens; they get from neither society nor their husbands, the assistance they need to become in concrete fact the equals of men.
10) Which of the following helps women
(a) The right to vote
(b) Civil liberties
(c) A job
(d) Wealthy husbands
Answer. (b) Civil liberties
The question can be answered only by reading the whole passage and trying to understand the author’s view point. However, the sentence – “Their jobs at the factory do not relieve them of housekeeping burdens; they get from neither society nor their husbands, the assistance they need to become in concrete fact the equals of men” is more helpful in answering the question.
11) Why does the writer talk about the maidservant in the hotel lobby?
(a) The servants of today will one day be freed from their rich masters
(b) A servant can become as rich as Rockefeller or Birla
(c) Even with a low paid job women can achieve equality
(d) Economic independence is necessary for women’s liberation
Answer. (c) Even with a low paid job women can achieve equality
The writer took the example of maidservant because to stress that the even with a low paid job women can achieve equality. It can be understood from the sentence – “She was as proud of her self-sufficiency as a Rockefeller, Ford or Birla.”
12) In which paragraph does the writer say that it is revealed that some woman would not like to work in the factory?
(a) In paragraph four
(b) In paragraph three
(c) In paragraph two
(d) In paragraph one
Answer. (a) In paragraph four
13) “These liberties” in the first paragraph refer to
(a) The right to vote , not to obey and right to a job
(b) The right to vote and not to obey
(c) The rights of servants to disobey their master and the right of the master to punish them
(d) Women’s right to vote and earn money
Answer. (b) The right to vote and not to obey
The question can be answered from the sentence – “According to the civil laws of most countries, obedience is no longer the duty of a wife, every woman has the political right to vote, but these liberties remain theoretical as long as she does not have economic freedom.”
During the past three generations, the diseases affecting western societies have undergone dramatic changes. Polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, are vanishing; one injection of an antibiotic often cures deadly diseases such as pneumonia or syphilis, and so many mass killers have come under control that two-thirds of all death is now associated with the diseases of old age. Those who die young are more often than not victims of accidents, violence, or suicide.
These changes in health status are generally equated with the decrease in suffering and attributed to more or better medical care. Almost everyone believes that at least one of his friends would not be alive and well except for the skill of a doctor. But there is, in fact, no evidence of any direct relationship between this change in the pattern or nature of sickness on the one hand and the so-called progress of medicine on the other hand. These changes are the results of political technological changes. They are not related to the activities that require the preparation and status of doctors or the costly equipment in which doctors take pride. In addition, an increase in the number of new diseases in the last fifteen years are themselves the result of medical intervention. They are doctor-made or iatrogenic.
14) In the western societies, the occurrences of polio, diphtheria, and tuberculosis has
(b) completely stopped
(d) continued without changes
Answer. (c) decreased
The first sentence of the first para – “During the past three generations, the diseases affecting western societies have undergone dramatic changes. Polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, are vanishing…” helps in answering the question.
15) More death are now associated with old age than in the past because
(a) iatrogenic diseases are spreading faster now
(b) deadly diseases affecting the young have been well controlled
(c) Accidents, violence and suicide that killed many youths in the past are now under control
(d) political and technological changes now take better care of the young than the old
Answer. (d) political and technological changes now take better care of the young than the old
The question can be answered from the sentence given in the second para – “These changes are the results of political technological changes.”
16) The writer probably is arguing for
(a) stopping the practice of western medicines completely
(b) stopping the use of costly equipment and medicines
(c) rethinking about the successes and failures of the western medicines
(d) giving greater attention to new, iatrogenic diseases than to the old diseases such as polio, diphtheria and pneumonia
Answer. (c) rethinking about the successes and failures of the western medicines
Poverty is a complex problem. It is far more than an economic condition. We measure it usually in terms of income but forget that poverty embraces a whole range of circumstances, including lack of access to information and to basic services like nutritional diet, health care, and education. It results in a loss of cultural identity and destroys traditional knowledge. Poor people become marginalized and suffer from exploitation and loss of human dignity.
17) Which of the following sentences comes close to the meaning of the sentence, “Poverty embraces a whole range of circumstances.”
(a) There are lot of angles to poverty
(b) There are several section in the society which are poor
(c) There are several types of poverty
(d) Poverty is solely an economic issue
Answer. (a) There are lot of angles to poverty
The intention of the author is emphasize the fact that the poverty is not only lack of money (economic). But it results in many other lossess.
18) What way do you think ‘lack of access to information’ affects poor people?
(a) They don’t get information about how to improve their conditions
(b) They didn’t get newspapers to read at all
(c) They can’t go to school and read books
(d) They don’t get information about schemes of getting rich
Answer. (a) They don’t get information about how to improve their conditions
Compared to the option (d), the option (a) is more appropriate since it is more general in nature and covers all the aspects related to ‘information access’ including the information related to schemes.
19) What do you think ‘cultural identity’ is important?
(a) A sense of cultural identity gives people self-respect and confidence
(b) Cultural identity defines the character of poor people
(c) It is important to have cultural identity to get jobs
(d) It is useful to have cultural identity because it brings your success
Ans. (a) A sense of cultural identity gives people self-respect and confidence
The writer wants to emphasize the fact that cultural identity is related to behavioural aspects such as self-respect and confidence.
20) Which of the following sentences comes closest to the sentence” Poor people become marginalised”?
(a) They are not given any benefit of government schemes
(b) They are ignored by the rich people
(c) They are the most ignored elements of the society
(d) They are the most disposed elements of the society
Ans. (d) They are the most disposed elements of the society
It means they are the most neglected section of the society.
21) What do you think is the tone of the passage?
(a) Objective but querulous
(b) Descriptive and impassioned
(c) Argumentative and critical
(d) Objective and critical
Answer. (a) Objective but querulous
The option (a) can’t be the answer since the word ‘querulous’ means childishly sulky or bad-tempered; whereas the writer’s tone is critical in the passage.
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