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Economic Survey 2017-18 Questions: Sustainable Development, Energy and Climate Change

Feb 20, 2018 18:10 IST
    Economic Survey 2017-18 Questions
    Economic Survey 2017-18 Questions

    Economic Survey 2017-18 based questions have been provided here for the IAS Prelims Exam 2018. The questions are based on the information given in the ‘Sustainable Development, Energy and Climate Change’ chapter of the Survey.

    1. Consider the following statements related to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as mentioned in the Economic Survey 2017-18.
    1) The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in September 2015.
    2) There are 17 SDGs which have 169 targets to be achieved by 2030.
    3) Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) helps India in achieving SDGs.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) All of them

    Answer. d

    Explanation:

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). The SDGs cover social, economic and environmental dimensions and build on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Notably, the SDGs constitute a universal agreement to end poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty. There are 17 SDGs which have 169 targets to be achieved by 2030. India played an important role in shaping the SDGs.

    Several of the Government’s programmes would directly contribute to the advancement of the SDG agenda. A noteworthy example is the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY), which is the world’s largest financial inclusion programme. While targeting economic growth, infrastructure development and industrialisation, the country’s fight against poverty has become fundamentally focussed on social inclusion and empowerment of the poor.

    India is one of the countries that has volunteered to take part in the Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) at the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) 2017. India presented its 1st VNR on implementation of SDGs on 19th July, 2017 in the HLPF at United Nations, New York. The VNR report is based on an analysis of progress under various programmes and initiatives in the country.

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    2. Consider the following statements related to Urban India.
    1) As per the UN World Cities Report 2016, India is expected to be home to seven mega-cities with population above 10 million by 2030.
    2) As per the Census 2011, around 40 per cent of total population live in urban areas.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. a

    Explanation:

    India is now embarking on a fast rural to urban transition.According to World Economic and Social Survey 2013, achieving the sustainability of cities entails integration of four pillars - social development, economic development, environmental management and effective urban governance.

    According to the UN World Cities Report 2016, by 2030, India is expected to be home to seven mega-cities with population above 10 million. According to Census 2011, 377.1 million Indians comprising 31.16 per cent of the country’s population live in urban areas. India’s urban population is projected to grow to about 600 million by 2031.
    India is committed to achieve the SDG 11 that mandates States to make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

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    3. Consider the following statements related to energy access in India.
    1) In 2015, the proportion of the population without access to clean cooking was around 64 per cent.
    2) Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana was launched in May 2016 to provide electricity to rural and remote areas in the country.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. a

    Explanation:

    Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non of achieving all the SDGs due to its deep inter-linkages with all the other goals. Although, over the years the country has made considerable progress in providing access to households to clean cooking options, the proportion of population without access to clean cooking was around 64 per cent in 2015 compared to a World average of 38 per cent and 33 per cent for China in the same year.

    The Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) in May 2016 to provide cooking gas connections to five crore below-poverty-line beneficiaries. It was upgraded it to provide 80 million LPG connections by 2020 to BPL households. Complementing the above scheme, the Government has come out with other initiatives, namely “Ujjwala Plus” which will address the cooking needs of deprived people who are not covered under the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) 2011.

    4. Consider the following statements related to the International Solar Alliance (ISA).
    1) ISA is the first International intergovernmental treaty-based organization headquartered in India.
    2) It was jointly launched by India and France in November 2015.
    3) The focus of the ISA is to encourage the usage of solar energy in industries.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 and 2 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) All of them

    Answer. a

    Explanation:

    The International Solar Alliance (ISA) was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Francois Hollande, the former President of France in November 2015 in Paris. It was launched on the sidelines of the United Nations Climate Change Conference (UNFCCC).

    ISA is the first International intergovernmental treaty-based organization headquartered in India. Its headquarters is located in Gurugram in Haryana. So far, 46 countries have signed the ISA Framework Agreement. And, out of these, 19 countries have ratified the agreement.

    ISA is a coalition of solar resource rich countries lying fully or partially between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and aims to specifically address energy needs by harnessing solar energy. The Paris Declaration that established the ISA states that the countries share the collective ambition to undertake innovative and concerted efforts for reducing the cost of finance and cost of technology for immediate deployment of solar generation assets.

    Presently ISA has three programmes Scaling Solar Applications for Agricultural Use, Affordable Finance at Scale and Scaling Solar Mini-grids. In addition, ISA plans to launch two more programmes on Scaling Solar Rooftops, and Scaling E-Mobility and Storage.

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    5. Consider the following statements related to the energy sector in India.
    1) The Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana was launched to encourage solar power generation in rural areas.
    2) As on 30 November, 2017, 18 per cent of India's electricity was from renewable energy sources.

    Which of the above statements is/are correct?
    a) 1 only
    b) 2 only
    c) Both 1 and 2
    d) Neither 1 nor 2

    Answer. d

    Explanation:

    The Union Government launched the Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY) in 2015 to achieve 100 per cent village electrification and the Saubhagya scheme in September 2017 to provide energy access to all by improving last mile connectivity. By January 2018, out of 18.1 crore rural households in the country, 14.2 crore (78%) rural households have been electrified. There are also considerable variations among the different states. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat and Punjab have achieved 100 per cent electrification of households. In contrast, Bihar, Jharkhand and Nagaland have achieved less than 50 per cent.

    Not only has the government focussed on providing reliable electricity to the common man, but also has strived to ensure that the additions are from sustainable sources. As of November 30 2017, the total installed capacity of electricity in India was 330860.6 MW out of which 18 per cent was from renewable energy sources.

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    DISCLAIMER: JPL and its affiliates shall have no liability for any views, thoughts and comments expressed on this article.

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