UPSC: UPSC offers Manipuri as an optional subject in the UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam. Included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, Manipuri is a Tibeto-Burman language used in the state of Manipur in North East India. The syllabus for this subject includes the importance of the Manipuri language, its history, and development as well as its linguistic features. It also includes important works from ancient, medieval, and modern literature. UPSC IAS Mains optional includes two optional papers of 250 marks each. Candidates who have studied Manipuri throughout school and college or have learnt it as their native language should opt for this subject. Below is the detailed syllabus of both papers of Manipuri literature optional subject.
UPSC Optional Syllabus for Manipuri Literature Paper I
a) General characteristics of Manipuri Language and history of its development; its importance and status among the Tibeto-Burman Languages of North-East India; recent development in the study of Manipuri language; evolution and study of old Manipuri script.
b) Significant features of Manipuri language:
i) Phonology-Phoneme-vowels, consonants juncture, tone, consonant cluster and its occurrence, syllable-its structure, pattern, and types.
ii) Morphology: Word-class, root and its types; affix and its types; grammatical categories-gender, number, person, case, tense and aspects, process of compounding (samas and sandhi).
iii) Syntax: Word order: types of sentences, phrases and clause structures.
a) Literary History of Manipuri :
Early period (upto 17th century)-Social and cultural background; Themes, diction and style of the works.
Medieval period (18th and 19th century)- Social, religious and political background; Themes, diction and style of the works.
Modern period-Growth of major literary forms; change of Themes, diction and style.
b) Manipuri Folk Literature :
Legend, Folktale, Folksong, Ballad, Proverb and Riddle.
c) Aspects of Manipuri Culture :
Pre-Hindu Manipuri Faith; Advent of Hinduism and the process of syncretism.
Performing arts-Lai Haraoba, Maha Ras; Indigenous games-Sagol Kangjei, Khong Kangjei, Kang.
UPSC Optional Syllabus for Manipuri Literature Paper-II
Answers must be written in Manipuri.
This paper will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidate's critical ability to assess them.
Section A: Old and Medieval Manipuri Literature
a) Old Manipuri Literature
O. Bhogeswar Singh (Ed.): Numit Kappa
M. Gourachandra Singh (Ed.): Thawanthaba Hiran
N. Khelchandra Singh (Ed.): Naothingkhong Phambal Kaba
M. Chandra Singh (Ed.): Panthoibi Khonggul
b) Medieval Manipuri Literature:
M. Chandra Singh (Ed.): Samsok Ngamba
R.K.Snahal Singh (Ed.): Ramayana Adi Kanda
N. Khelchandra SIngh (Ed.): Dhananjoy Laibu Ningba
O. Bhogeswar Singh (Ed.): Chandrakirti Jila Changba
Section B: Modern Manipuri Literature
a) Poetry and Epic :
a) Manipuri Sheireng (Pub) Manipuri Sahitya Parishad, 1988 (ed.)
Kh. Chaoba Singh : Pi Thadoi, Lamgi Chekla Amada, Loktak
Dr. L. Kamal Singh : Nirjanata, Nirab Rajani
Minaketan Singh : Kamalda, Nonggumlakkhoda
Samarendra Singh : Ingagi Nong, Mamang Leikai Thambal Satle
Nilakanta Singh : Manipur, Lamangnaba
Shri Biren : Tangkhul Hui
Th. Ibopishak : Anouba Thunglaba Jiba
b) Kanchi Sheireng. (Pub) Manipur University 1998 (ed.)
Dr. L. Kamal Singh : Biswa-Prem
Shri Biren : Chaphadraba Laigi Yen
Th. Ibopishak : Norok Patal Prithivi
A. Dorendrajit Singh : Kansa Bodha
H. Anganghal Singh : Khamba-Thoibi Sheireng (San-Senba, Lei Langba, Shamu Khonggi Bichar)
(III) Drama :
S. Lalit Singh : Areppa Marup
G.C. Tongbra : Matric Pass
A. Samarendra : Judge Sahebki Imung
b) Novel, Short-story and Prose :
(I) Novel :
Dr. L. Kamal Singh : Madhabi
H. Anganghal Singh : Jahera
H. Guno Singh : Laman
Pacha Meetei : Imphal Amasung, Magi Ishing, Nungsitki Phibam
(II) Short-story :
a) Kanchi Warimacha (Pub) Manipur University 1997 (ed.)
R.K. Shitaljit Singh : Kamala Kamala
M.K. Binodini : Eigi Thahoudraba Heitup Lalu
Kh. Prakash : Wanom Shareng
b) Parishadki Khangatlaba Warimacha (Pub) Manipuri Sahitya Parishad 1994 (ed.)
Nilbir Shastri : Loukhatpa
R.K. Elangba : Karinunggi
c) Anouba Manipuri Warimacha (Pub) The Cultural Forum Manipur 1992 (ed.)
Kunjamohon Singh : Ijat Tanba
Dinamani : Nongthak Khongnang
(III) Prose :
a) Warenggi Saklon [Due Part (Pub) The Cultural Forum Manipur 1992 (ed.)
Kh. Chaoba Singh : Khamba-Thoibigi Wari Amasung Mahakavya
b) Kanchi Wareng (Pub) Manipur University 1998 (ed.)
Manisana Shastri : Phajaba
Ch. Manihar Singh : Lai-Haraoba
c) Apunba Wareng. (Pub) Manipur University, 1986 (ed.)
Ch. Pishak Singh : Samaj Amasung, Sanskriti
M.K. Binodini : Thoibidu Warouhouida
Eric Newton: Kalagi Mahousa (translated by I.R. Babu)
d) Manipuri Wareng (Pub) The Cultural Forum Manipur 1999 (ed.)
Krishnamohan Singh: Lan
Aspirants should always keep a copy of the Optional Syllabus with them as the syllabus is the guiding light for preparation. Mark keywords and restrict your preparation as per the syllabus mentioned. You can also check previous year papers for a better understanding of the kind of questions asked from Manipuri Literature optional in previous years.