Paper 4 is perhaps the most generic portion of the whole general studies syllabus. It consists of topics like happiness, emotional intelligence, aptitude towards services and even behaviour studies which can easily be answered in a general viewpoint.
This paper might seem easy at first, but that doesn’t mean it can be mastered without right efforts. Hence, the following book list and sources will always help to attempt the questions more accurately.
IGNOU Study Material for Ethics Course: This material is designed for students who are totally new to the subject matter of ethics but since it contains the fundaments of ethics and integrity, it holds importance. Moreover, it helps to develop an individualistic concern on each ethical issue independently as it contains challenging and engaging questions at the end of each chapter.
Justice: What’s the right thing to do? - By Michael Sandel: This gives a real insight into morality and ethical behaviour in human life. It can progressively be used to answer some basic questions like what is ethics and how it influences the ambience around the globe. This is of great help to solve case studies as it widens the range of thinking and perceiving situations.
Psychology NCERT class 12th book: The utility is only for covering specific chapters like Attitude, Aptitude, Thinking and Perception.
Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude for Civil Services Examination by G. Subba Rao: This is not a one time read book, but it requires efforts and time to understand the content. It provides you with good examples from an Indian context so that you are able to supplement the ethical knowledge in case-study applications. It contains more than 100 case studies as examples.
Lexicon for Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude for IAS General Studies by Niraj Kumar: This book is for aspirants having a basic idea of ethics and value system and they need to revise and brush up their answers according to the relevance in the mains exam. It contains all the topics specified in the IAS mains syllabus in a brief summary format which can prove to be very lucid for revision.
Administrative Reforms Commission Report on Ethics: if an aspirant wants to support his/her argument from a logical stand, Administrative reform commission’s recommendations can help to enhance the conclusion of their answers. The report is highly authentic and direct recommendations on social policing, public probity in governance and ethics in governance can be quoted from here.
To streamline your Mains preparation after prelims, it’s advisable to finish all the overlapping syllabus like administration, governance and public probity with Paper 2 itself. Maintain separate notes for current ethical issues impacting the Judiciary system and current value system impacting Indian Society.