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Bimolecules Part-1 – Important Questions & Preparation Tips

Jan 3, 2017 17:26 IST

In IIT JEE, WBJEE, UPSEE and other engineering entrance examination the chapter Bimolecules plays an important role. About 1-2 questions are being asked from this chapter. This article talks about important concept, formulae and previous year questions related to Bimolecules. The concept given in this article is in concise form and can be used for revision before the examination.

Bimolecules

They are the organic molecules that are involved in the maintenance and metabolic processes of living organisms. Thus, they build up the living system and are responsible for their growth and maintenance.

Some of the common biomolecules are:

•    Carbohydrates

•    Proteins

•    Lipids

•    Nucleic acids

•    ATP molecules

Carbohydrates:

On the basis of hydrolysis, carbohydrates are classified as follows:

(a) Monosaccharide

(b) Disaccharides

(c) Polysaccharides

Monosaccharide: These are the simpler carbohydrates which cannot be hydrolysed further to its constituent aldehyde or ketone.

For example glucose,fructose, galactose etc.

UPSEE 2017 Solved Sample Paper Set-1

monnosachride

Disaccharides: It is a sugar which can be hydrolysed into two monosaccharides.

For example sucrose, lactose, maltose.

sucrose-reaction

Polysaccharides: These are carbohydrates which on hydrolysis yield many monosaccharide units.

For example starch, cellulose, glycogen, gums, etc.

Monosaccharides and oligosaccharides are crystalline solids, soluble in water and sweet in taste. These are called sugars. Polysaccharides are amorphous, insoluble in water and tasteless. These are called non-sugars.

D and L configuration of Sugar:

For defining D and L configuration of sugar the compound glyceraldehydes, HOCH2CH(OH)CHO was chosen as the standard.

JEE Main Mathematics Solved Sample Paper Set-VII

d, l glyceraldehyde

Compounds that resembles D-glyceraldehyde at one terminal is known as D-sugar. Similarly, compound that resembles L-glyceraldehyde at one terminal is known as L-sugar.

Note: Natural sugar are D-sugar and synthetic sugar are L-sugar.

Cyclic Structure of Monosaccharides:

Some monosaccharides adopt cyclic structures. This conversion occurs because of the ability of aldehydes and ketones to react with alcohols:

cyclic monosaccharide

 Some questions are given below to test your knowledge.

Q1. Classify the following into monosaccharides and disaccharides.

Ribose, 2-deoxyribose, maltose, galactose, fructose and lactose

Monosaccharides:-

Ribose, 2-deoxyribose, galactose, fructose

Disaccharides: -

Maltose, lactose

Q2. Natural sugar is:

(a) D-sugar

(b) L-sugar

(c) Either D or L sugar

(d) None of these

Sol.

Natural sugar is D-sugar while synthetic sugar is L-sugar.

JEE Main Chemistry Solved Sample Paper Set-VII

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