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List of Major Crops and required Geo-climatic condition across the world

06-SEP-2017 17:03

The Geo-Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area. Weather is the state of the atmosphere over short periods of time. Weather can change from hour to hour, day to day, month to month or even year to year. A region’s weather patterns, tracked for more than 30 years, are considered its climate. Here, we are giving the list of Major Crops and required Geo-climatic condition across the world which will be helpful for the entire preparation journey of aspirants.

Cimate Condition

List of Major Crops and required Geo-climatic condition across the world

1. Rice       

Temperature: 15°-27° C

Rainfall: 100- 150 cm

Soil: Heavy-clayey to-clayey-loam    

Producers: China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, Japan, Myanmar, Vietnam, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka

Leading exporter in the world: Thailand

2. Wheat    

Temperature: 12°-25°C

Rainfall: 25-75 cm

Soil: well-drained-light clay to heavy clay  

Producers: China, India, USA, Russia, Australia, Canada, Pakistan, France, and Turkey.

Leading exporter in the world: USA

3. Maize    

Temperature: 15°-27°C

Rainfall: 65-125 cm

Soil: Deep-heavy clay to light sandy loam 

Producers: USA, China, Brazil, Mexico, Russia, Romania, India, and South Africa.

Leading exporter in the world: USA

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4. Millets   

Temperature: 20°-35°C

Rainfall: 25-75 cm

Soil: Sandy-loam to clayey loam      

Producers: China, USA, India, Nigeria, Ukraine, Thailand, Russia, and Turkey.

Leading exporter in the world: USA

5. Bajra (Pearl Millet)   

Temperature: 25°-35°C

Rainfall: 25-60 cm

Soil: Sandy loam to loam       

Producers: In India: Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh.

6. Pulses (Kharif)

Temperature: 20° -27°C

Rainfall: 25-60 cm

Soil: Sandy-loam Producers: In India: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal

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7. Lentil (Rabi)   

Temperature: 15° to 25°C

Rainfall: 25 to 50 cm

Soil: Loamy to clayey loam     

Producers: Mediterranean countries of Europe, Egypt, Greece, Turkey, China, India: (Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal

8. Oilseeds

Temperature: 15°-30°C

Rainfall: 30-50 cm        

Soil: loam to clayey loam        

Producers: In India: Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttarakhand.

9. Groundnut     

Temperature: 20°-30°C

Rainfall: 50-75 cm

Soil: well-drained-sandy loams, red and black cotton   

Producers: India, China, USA, Sudan, Senegal, Indonesia, Argentina, Myanmar.

Leading exporter in the world: USA

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10. Sugarcane    

Temperature: 20°-35°C

Rainfall: 85-165 cm

Soil: Well-drained alluvium, black, red and brown regur soil 

Producers: Brazil, India, China, Pakistan, Thailand, Mexico, Cuba, Colombia.

Leading exporter: Brazil

11. Sugar beet    

Temperature: 10°-25°C

Rainfall: 25-50 cm

Soil: Well-drained-loamy soil   Producers: France, USA, Germany, Russia, China, Ukraine, Poland, Turkey, Leading exporter in the world: France

12. Cotton

Temperature: 18°-27°C

Rainfall: 60-110 cm

Soil: well-drained loam, and regur (black-earth) 

Producers: China, USA, India, Brazil, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Turkey.

Leading exporter in the world: USA

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13. Tea      

Temperature: 15° -35°C

Rainfall: 100-250 cm

Soil: well-drained, light loamy Soil   Producers: India, China, Sri-Lanka, Kenya, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Turkey.

Leading exporter in the world: India.

14. Coffee 

Temperature: 15°-28°C

Rainfall: 125-225 cm

Soil: well-drained alluvial Soil Producers: Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Ivory-Coast, Mexico, Ghana, Cameroon, India.

Leading exporter in the world: Brazil

15. Cocoa  

Temperature: 18°-35°C

Rainfall: 100-250 cm

Soil: well-drained alluvium    

Producers: Ivory-Coast, Ghana, Indonesia, Brazil, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ecuador, Costa-Rica.

Leading exporter in the world: Ivory-Coast

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16. Rubber

Temperature: 27°C

Rainfall: 150-250 cm

Soil: rich-well-drained alluvial Soil  

Producers: Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, China, Sri-Lanka, Liberia, Brazil.

Leading exporter in the world: Thailand.

17. Jute    

Temperature: 25°-35°C

Rainfall: about 150-250 cm

Soil: Well drained alluvial Soil

Producers: Bangladesh, India, China, Thailand, Myanmar, Brazil and Nepal.

Leading exporter: Bangladesh

18. Flax     

Temperature: 10°-20°C

Rainfall: 15-20 cm

Soil: Rich loam or clayey loam

Producers: In India: Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and the Jammu Division of J & K

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19. Coconut       

Temperature: 27°C

Rainfall: 100-250 cm, up-to 600 m above the sea level

Soil: lateritic red, sandy alluvial sandy      

Producers: In India: Kerala (55%), Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

20. Oil-palm       

Temperature: 27°-33°C (maximum), 22°-24°C (minimum)

Rainfall: 250-400 cm well distributed in the year

Soil: Deep-loamy and alluvial soil    

Producers: India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam, Gujarat, Goa, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and West Bengal

21. Clove   

Temperature: 25°-35°C

Rainfall:  200- 250 cm

Soil: Red alluvial Soil    

Producers: In India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andaman and Nicobar

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22. Black Pepper

Temperature: 15°C to 40°C

Rainfall: 200-300'cm. Height up-to 1500 m above sea level

Soil: rich in hums, red-loam to sandy loam, and red lateritic sandy loam

Producers: In India: Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Pondicherry

23. Cardamom    

Temperature: 10°-35°C

Rainfall: 150-400 cm, height 600-1500 m

Soil: well-drained lateritic      

Producers: In India: Kerala (60%), Karnataka (30%), and Tamil Nadu (10 %).

24. Turmeric      

Temperature: 20°-30°C

Rainfall: 150-250 cm

Soil: well-drained clayey loam or red loamy soil  

Producers: In India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

The climatic zones can be grouped into the following types: Tropical; Monsoon; Dry; Warm; Cool; Cold. In the above list of Major Crops and required Geo-climatic condition across the world gives a quick recap of the major crops which are grown in different climatic conditions.

Climate, Soil & Vegetation in India

The climatic zones can be grouped into the following types: Tropical; Monsoon; Dry; Warm; Cool; Cold. In the above list of Major Crops and required Geo-climatic condition across the world gives a quick recap of the major crops which are grown in different climatic conditions.

Climate, Soil & Vegetation of India

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