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List of Major Crops and required Geo-climatic condition across the world

06-MAR-2017 17:41

The Geo-Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area. Weather is the state of the atmosphere over short periods of time. Weather can change from hour to hour, day to day, month to month or even year to year. A region’s weather patterns, tracked for more than 30 years, are considered its climate. Here, we are giving the list of Major Crops and required Geo-climatic condition across the world which will be helpful for the entire preparation journey of aspirants.

Cimate Condition

List of Major Crops and required Geo-climatic condition across the world

Crop

Geo-climatic requirements

Leading Producers

Rice

Temperature: 15°-27° C

Rainfall : 100- 150 cm

Soil: Heavy-clayey to-clayey-loam

China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, Japan, Myanmar, Vietnam, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka

Leading exporter in the world: Thailand

Wheat

Temperature: 12°-25°C

Rainfall : 25-75 cm

Soil: well-drained-light clay to heavy clay

China, India, USA, Russia, Australia, Canada, Pakistan, France, Turkey.

Leading exporter in the world: USA

 

Maize

Temperature: 15°-27°C

Rainfall : 65-125 cm

Soil: Deep-heavy clay to light sandy loam

USA, China, Brazil, Mexico, Russia, Romania, India, South Africa. Leading exporter in the world-USA

 

Millets

Temperature: 20°-35°C

Rainfall : 25-75 cm

Soil: Sandy-loam to clayey loam

China, USA, India, Nigeria, Ukraine, Thailand, Russia, Turkey.

Leading exporter in the world-USA

Bajra (pearl millet)

Temperature: 25°-35°C

Rainfall : 25-60 cm

Soil: Sandy loam to loam

In India: Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh.

Pulses (Kharif)

Temperature: 20° -27°C

Rainfall : 25-60 cm

Soil: Sandy-loam

In India: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal

Lentil (Rabi)

Temperature: 15° to 25°C

Rainfall : 25 to 50 cm

Soil: Loamy to clayey loam

Mediterranean countries of Europe, Egypt, Greece, Turkey, China, India: (Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal)

Oilseeds

Temperature: 15°-30°C

Rainfall : 30-50 cm       

Soil: loam to clayey loam

In India: Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttarakhand.

Groundnut

Temperature: 20°-30°C

Rainfall : 50-75 cm

Soil: well-drained-sandy loams, red and black cotton

India, China, USA, Sudan, Senegal, Indonesia, Argentina, Myanmar. Leading exporter in the world-USA

Sugarcane

Temperature: 20°-35°C

Rainfall : 85-165 cm

Soil: Well-drained alluvium, black, red and brown regur soil

Brazil, India, China, Pakistan, Thailand, Mexico, Cuba, Colombia. Leading exporter-Brazil.

Sugar beet

Temperature: 10°-25°C

Rainfall : 25-50 cm

Soil: Well-drained-loamy soil

France, USA, Germany, Russia, China, Ukraine, Poland, Turkey, Leading exporter in the world: France

Cotton

Temperature: 18°-27°C

Rainfall : 60-110 cm

Soil: well-drained loam, and regur (black-earth)

China, USA, India, Brazil, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Turkey. Leading exporter in the world-USA

 

Tea

Temperature: 15° -35°C

Rainfall : 100-250 cm

Soil: well-drained, light loamy Soil

India, China, Sri-Lanka, Kenya, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Turkey. Leading exporter in the world: India.

Coffee

Temperature: 15°-28°C

Rainfall : 125-225 cm

Soil: well-drained alluvial Soil

Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Ivory-Coast, Mexico, Ghana, Cameroon, India.

Leading exporter in the world-Brazil

Cocoa

Temperature: 18°-35°C

Rainfall : 100-250 cm

Soil: well-drained alluvium

Ivory-Coast, Ghana, Indonesia, Brazil, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ecuador, Costa-Rica.

Leading exporter in the world: Ivory-Coast

Rubber

Temperature: 27°C

Rainfall : 150-250 cm

Soil: rich-well-drained alluvial Soil

Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, China, Sri-Lanka, Liberia, Brazil.

Leading exporter in the world: Thailand.

 

Jute

Temperature: 25°-35°C

Rainfall : about 150-250 cm

Soil: Well drained alluvial Soil

Bangladesh, India, China, Thailand, Myanmar, Brazil and Nepal. Leading exporter-Bangladesh

 

Flax

Temperature: 10°-20°C

Rainfall : 15-20 cm

Soil: Rich loam or clayey loam

In India: Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and the Jammu Division of J & K

Coconut

Temperature: 27°C

Rainfall : 100-250 cm, up-to 600 m above the sea level

Soil: lateritic red, sandy alluvial sandy

In India: Kerala (55%), Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Oil-palm

Temperature: 27°-33°C (maximum), 22°-24°C (minimum)

Rainfall : 250-400 cm well distributed in the year

Soil: Deep-loamy and alluvial soil

India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam, Gujarat, Goa, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and West Bengal

Clove

Temperature: 25°35°C

Rainfall:  200- 250 cm

Soil: red alluvial Soil

In India: Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andaman and Nicobar

Black Pepper

Temperature: 15°C to 40°C

Rainfall: 200-300'cm. Height up-to 1500 m above sea level

Soil: rich in hums, red-loam to sandy loam, and red lateritic sandy loam

In India: Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Pondicherry

 

Cardamom

Temperature: 10°-35°C

Rainfall : 150-400 cm, height 600-1500 m

Soil: well-drained lateritic

In India: Kerala (60%), Karnataka (30%), Tamil Nadu (10 %).

 

Turmeric

Temperature: 20°-30°C

Rainfall : 150-250 cm

Soil: well-drained clayey loam or red loamy soil

In India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.

 

The climatic zones can be grouped into the following types: Tropical; Monsoon; Dry; Warm; Cool; Cold. In the above list of Major Crops and required Geo-climatic condition across the world gives a quick recap of the major crops which are grown in different climatic conditions.

Climate, Soil & Vegetation of India

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