The origin of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty has been a disputable subject and has been debated over the previous decades by historians. The varying views basically revolve around issues, for example, the home of the most punctual precursors of the medieval Rashtrakutas, a conceivable southern movement and the relationship between the few Rashtrakuta lines that ruled little kingdoms in Northern and focal India and the Deccan in the sixth century - seventh century. Further, the relationship of these medieval Rashtrakutas to the most critical and acclaimed line, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta of the eighth century - tenth century time period has additionally been talked about. Additionally challenged is whether the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta were connected by family line to the early Kannada, Maratha, Reddi, Rajput or Punjabi groups of the Deccan and northern India.
Rulers of Rashtrakutas
- Dantidurga (735–756 AD): He is considered as the founder of the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta. His capital was situated in Gulbarga area of Karnataka. He defeated the Chalukyas in 753AD and took the titles Rajadhiraja and Parameshvara. Further he defeated the kings Lata, Malwa, Tanka, Kalinga and Sheshas (Nagas) in focal India and performed numerous penances. In spite of the fact that he vanquished the Chalukya Empire the Chalukya Emperor Kirtivarman II held control over his southern regions up to 757AD.
- Krishna I (756–774 AD): He was an uncle of Dantidurga, assumed responsibility of the defeating so as to develop Rashtrakuta Empire the last Badami Chalukya ruler Kirtivarman II in 757 AD. He effectively battled the Western Ganga Dynasty King Sripurusha (and obtained some domain in Gangavadi, present day Southern Karnataka) and the Shilaharas of South Konkan. He defeated the Eastern Chalukya ruler Vishnuvardhana IV. The Kailasanatha Temple in Ellora was appointed amid his time. He was in charge of building 18 Shiva temples. His eldest son, Govinda II came to power after his death.
- Govinda II (774–780 AD): He left the administration to his younger brother named Dhruva Dharavarsha. Apart from his commitment to exotic joys and an intrusion of Vengi and the ensuing annihilation of Eastern Chalukya ruler Vishnuvardhana IV (when his dad Krishna I was still the Rashtrakuta emperor), very little is thought about Govinda I.
- Dhruva (780–793 AD): He was one of most striking rulers of the Rashtrakuta Empire. He raised the throne in the wake of supplanting his senior sibling Govinda II. Govinda II had gotten to be disliked among his subjects by virtue of his different wrongdoings as a ruler, incorporating extreme liberality in arousing delight.
- Govinda III (793–814 AD): He succeeded his father Dhruva Dharavarsha. He was militarily the best emperor of the tradition with fruitful successes from Cape Comorin in the south to Kannauj in the north, from Banaras in the east to Broach (Bharuch) in the west. From his capital in Mayurkhandi in Bidar area, Govinda III directed his northern battle in 800 AD. He effectively acquired the accommodation of Gurjara-Pratihara Nagabhata II, Dharmapala of Pala Empire and the ruler of Kannauj, Chakrayudha. Govinda III died in 814 AD, and was succeeded by his son Amoghavarsha.
- Amoghvarsha or Sarva (Amoghavarsha I) (800–878 AD): He was one of the greatest rulers of the Rashtrakuta tradition. His rule of 64 years is one of the longest unequivocally dated monarchical rules on record. Amoghavarsha I was an expert writer and researcher. He composed the Kavirajamarga, the most punctual surviving abstract work in Kannada, and Prashnottara Ratnamalika, a religious work in Sanskrit. He moved the Rashtrakuta superb capital from Mayurkhandi in the Bidar locale to Manyakheta in the Gulbarga region in the advanced Karnataka state.
- Krishna II (878–914 AD): He was ascended the Rashtrakuta throne after the death of his renowned father Amoghavarsha I. The rule of Krishna II saw huge advances in writing, in spite of the fact that in the issues of development of the domain, his rule was blended. He endured a few inversions against the Eastern Chalukyas ruled by King Gunaga Vijyaditya III whose leader sought after Krishna II to central India.
- Krishna III (939 – 967 AD): He was the last great warrior and capable ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty of Manyakheta. He was a wise manager and adroit military campaigner. He pursued numerous wars to bring back the wonderfulness of the Rashtrakutas and assumed an essential part in revamping the Rashtrakuta realm. At his top, he ruled an inconceivable realm extending from Narmada stream in the north to the Kaveri waterway delta in the south.
Adminstrative Structure of Rashtrakutas
The kingdom was categorised into Mandala or Rashtras (regions). A Rashtra was ruled by a Rashtrapathi who once in a while was the emperor himself. Amoghavarsha I's realm had 16 Rashtras. Under a Rashtra was a Vishaya (district) regulated by a Vishayapathi. The ministers once in a while ruled more than a Rashtra. Beneath the Vishaya was the Nadu took care of by the Nadugowda or Nadugavunda; infrequently there were two such authorities, one taking on the position through heredity and another appointed centrally. The most minimal division was a Grama or village administered by a Gramapathi or Prabhu Gavunda.
Rashtrakutas’s contribution in Art, Culture and Literature
The Rashtrakuta rulers supported the prominent religions of the day in the customary soul of religious resilience. The Rashtrakutas constructed surely understood Jain temples at areas, for example, Lokapura in Bagalkot locale and their reliable feudatory, the Western Ganga Dynasty, assembled Jain landmarks at Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. Lord Amoghavarsha I was a follower of the Jain acharya Jinasena. Be that as it may, the Rashtrakuta lords likewise belittled Hinduisms, supporters of the Shaiva, Vaishnava and Shakta beliefs. Lord Dantidurga performed the Hiranyagarbha (stallion penance) and the Sanjan and Cambay plates of King Govinda IV notice Brahmins performing such ceremonies as Rajasuya, Vajapeya and Agnishtoma. The Jain author Adikavi Pampa, broadly viewed as a standout amongst the most persuasive Kannada scholars, got to be well known for Adipurana (941 AD). It is the life history of the first Jain tirthankara Rishabhadeva.