The compounds of carbon are known as Organic Compounds. Also, apart from carbon, most of the organic compounds contain hydrogen, oxygen or other elements. Like methane, ethanol, ethane, ethene, ethyne, etc. Carbon compounds are covalent compounds having low melting points and boiling points.
Also, most of the carbon compounds are non-conductors of electricity. Organic compounds occur in all living plants and animals. Therefore, all organic compounds are extracted from natural materials obtained from living things. And the study of carbon compounds like hydrocarbons and their derivatives is called organic chemistry. This article deals with the descriptive Questions and Answers on Organic Compounds which will help in your various examination preparations and also clear your concepts.
1. Explain the properties of carbon that led to the formation large number of organic compounds?
Ans. Carbon atoms can link with one another by means of covalent bonds to form long chains or rings of carbon atoms. Another reason is the existence of a large number of organic compounds or carbon compounds is that the valency of carbon is 4. Due to its large valency, carbon atom can form covalent bonds with a number of carbon atoms as well as with a large number of other atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen etc.
2. What are hydrocarbons and name the most important natural source to obtain it?
Ans. Hydrocarbons are a compound made up of hydrogen and carbon. Like methane, ethane, ethane, ethyne etc. The most important natural source is petroleum or crude oil which is obtained from underground oil deposits by drilling oil wells.
List of important Organic Compounds
3. What do you mean by alkyl groups?
Ans. The group formed by the removal of one hydrogen atom from an alkane molecule is called an alkyl group. Example methyl group (CH3---), ethyl group (C2H5----) Methyl group is formed by the removal of one H atom from methane i.e. CH4 and ethyl from ethane i.e. C2H6.
4. Give an example of an unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbon with its formula?
Ans. The unsaturated cyclic compounds are also known as aromatic compounds. And Benzene is unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbon. Its formula is C6H6.
5. Define Isomers with an example?
Ans. The organic compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures are known as Isomers. For example Iso-Butane.
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Hydrocarbon: Types and Importance
6. What is homologous series and mention two characteristics?
Ans. Homologous series is a group of organic compounds having similar structures and similar chemical properties in which the successive compounds differ by CH2 group.
Characteristics are: All members of homologous series can be represented by the same general formula, the difference in the molecular masses of any two adjacent homologous is 14u.
7. What are aldehydes, give at least two examples?
Ans. Aldehydes are the carbon compounds containing an aldehyde group (CHO) attached to a carbon atom. Like formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO).
8. Why ethanol is known as clean fuel?
Ans. Because it gives only harmless products carbon dioxide and water vapour on burning. It does not produce any poisonous gas like carbon monoxide.
9. What do you mean by dehydration of alcohol?
Ans. Dehydration of an alcohol means removal of water molecule from ethanol. When ethanol is heated with excess of concentrated sulphuric acid at 170 degree Celsius, it gets dehydrated to form ethene. Therefore, sulphuric acid acts as a dehydrating agent.
10. Write two uses of ethanol?
Ans. Ethanol is used as a solvent, in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, medicines, perfumes, dyes, soaps etc.