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Hydrocarbon: Types and Importance

Do you know about hydrocarbons? How many types of hydrocarbons are there? What is the importance of hydrocarbons? Let us find out!
Feb 24, 2020 19:12 IST
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Hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon

Hydrocarbons are the Organic compounds obtained by the simple combination of hydrogen and carbon-like petrol, diesel, and kerosene oil, etc. It is usually divided into two categories: Aliphatic hydrocarbon; Aromatic hydrocarbon.

Types of Hydrocarbon

Aliphatic hydrocarbon: It is an Open chain hydrocarbon that is odourless. It is categorised into two groups- Aliphatic hydrocarbon may further be divided into groups- Saturated hydrocarbon or Alkane or Paraffin; Unsaturated hydrocarbon

  • Saturated hydrocarbon or Alkane or Paraffin: This is also called alkane or paraffin. Paraffin is a Latin word, which implies- less active and because of lesser activities of saturated hydrocarbons, these are called paraffin. The general formula of the member of .the series of saturated hydrocarbons is given by CnH2n+2; where n is the number of members of the series. The organic compounds like methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, etc are saturated hydrocarbons in which all carbon atoms are attached with a single covalent bond to each other.
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon: Those compounds of aliphatic hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms have double or triple covalent bonds called unsaturated hydrocarbons. This is also of two types- Alkenes or Olefin; Acetylene hydrocarbon or alkynes.

a) Alkenes or Olefin: Those compounds of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon in which carbon atoms have double covalent bond called Ethylene hydrocarbons or olefin or alkenes. General formula for the members of this series is CnH2n. The organic compound Ethylene (C2H4) is the example of alkenes.

b) Acetylene hydrocarbon or alkynes: Those compounds of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon in which carbon atoms have triple covalent bond are called acetylene or alkynes. General formula for the members of this series is CIIH2n_2. The organic compound acetylene (C2H2) or ethane is the simplest example of this hydrocarbon.

What is Catalysis?

Aromatic hydrocarbon: It is closed chain hydrocarbon which has a special type of smell (odour). Those compounds of hydrocarbon which are composed from hydrogen and carbon and have the branches like benzene, called aromatic hydrocarbons. General formula of the members of this series is CnH2n-2. There are various compounds like benzene; toluene, napthalene, anthracene etc are examples of aromatic hydrocarbon in which benzene is the simplest one. Sometimes aromatic hydrocarbons are also called Arenes.

Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

There are various organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen obtained by the definite composition and combination of various functional groups  like alcohols, ether, esters aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids etc whose  in details are given as below:

Alcohols: These are the simplest compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in which hydrogen atoms of alkanes are replaced by - OH functional group and the compound obtained is called alcohol. Also the alcoholic compound in which only one- OH is present is called monohydric alcohol while that of two - OH is called dehydric alcohol. The compounds like methanol (methyl alcohol), ethanol (ethyl alcohol) etc are the examples of monohydric alcohols, while glycol is the examples of dihydric alcohols. General formula of the members of this series is CnH2n+OH.

Aldehydes: Organic compounds in which - CHO functional group is present are called aldehydes, whose general formula of their members are CnH2n+1 CHO. The compounds like formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propional dehyde etc are the examples of aldehydes.

Ketones: Organic compounds in which> C = 0 functional group is present are called ketones. General formula of the members of this family is (CnH2n+1)2 CO. The compounds like acetone or dimethyl ketone, methyl ethyl ketone, diethyl ketone etc are the examples of ketone.

Carboxylic acids: Organic compounds in which -COOH functional group is present are called carboxylic acids and the general formula of their family's members is CnH2n+1COOH or CnH2n02. The compounds like formic acid, accetic acid, propionic acid, buteric acid etc are examples of carboxylic acids.

Acid anhydrides: Organic compounds in which RCOOCOR functional group is present are called acid anhydrides. General formula of the members of this family is (CnH2n+1 CO) 2O. The compounds like acetic anhydride, porpionic anhydride etc are the examples of acid anhydrides.

Esters: Organic compounds in which -COOR functional group is present are called esters. General formula of the family's members is CnH2n+1COOR or CnH2n+11l02. The compounds like methyl formate, ethyl formate, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate etc are the examples of esters. The ethyl acetate is used in making artificial perfumes, scented colour, dyes etc.

Ethers: Organic compounds in which -0- functional group is present are called ethers. General formula of family's members is (CnH2n+l) 20. The compounds like dimethyl ether, diethyl ether etc are examples of ethers. Diethyl ether is used in the form anaesthesia and it is also called ether only.  

General formulae of organic compounds

Organic Compound

General Formulae

Organic Compound

General Formulae

Alkane

CnH2n+2

Ether

CnH2n+2O

Alkene

CnH2n

Aldehyde and Ketone

CnH2n O

Alkynes

CnH2n-2

Carboxylic Acid

CnH2n O2

Alcohols

CnH2n+2 O

Primary aliphate amine

CnH2n+1 NH2

Alkyle halides

CnH2n+ X

Carbohydrate

Cx(H2O)y

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